Mosaic from Abbots Ann

Mosaic from Abbots Ann

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Danebury Iron Age Hill Fort

Iron Age hill fort in Hampshire in England, about 19 kilometres (12 mi) north-west of Winchester (grid reference SU323376). The site, covering 5 hectares (12 acres), was excavated by Barry Cunliffe in the 1970s.

Danebury Hill comprises relatively gentle slopes surrounding a chalk hill crowned by Danebury Ring, an Iron Age hill fort. The Hill fort carries a planted Beech Fagus wood, but the surrounding slopes support mixed chalk scrub, juniper Juniperus communis scrub and herb rich chalk grassland. The site is grazed by sheep and rabbits and is also maintained locally by public recreation, giving an interesting mosaic of habitats and associations.

Built in the 6th century BC, the fort was in use for almost 500 years. Danebury was remodelled several times, making it more complex and resulting in it becoming a "developed" hill fort. It is now protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Much of the hill is covered by chalk downland, a very scarce and valuable habitat. Wildflowers growing on the hillside include pyramidal orchids, wild thyme and agrimony. Skylarks and butterflies flourish on the grassland slopes. You can see many rare Juniper bushes that are currently being assessed for condition and viability, as part of a national survey. Juniper, with its sharp black berries used to flavour gin.

Artefacts from the site can be found in The Iron Age Museum in nearby Andover.

Entry is free and there is a car park and toilets. The site is popular with kite flyers and gives a good view of the surrounding countryside.

Episode 29 – Abbotts Ann and Little Ann, Hampshire

After all the quiet, peaceful English villages we’ve visited so far on our tour of Britain, you won’t be surprised to learn that we’re getting another today. Abbotts Ann dates back before the Romans came to Britain. It is situated just south-west of the town of Andover, in the county of Hampshire. This isn’t too far away from Abbots Worthy, last week’s location.

Because it isn’t on my map as a separate place, we’ll also be having a look at Little Ann, the hamlet next door. Despite their proximity, for a long time the two settlements were in different administrative districts and followed different paths until the eighteenth century.

A number of locations in the area share the similar name ‘Ann’ or ‘Anna’, thanks to the river that flows through there. Today it is called the Pillhill Brook, but several centuries ago it was called the River Anna. ‘Anna’ is a Celtic word that means ‘Ash tree stream’, hinting at the Celts who settled in the area thousands of years ago.

Even before the Celtic Britons arrived, Neolithic man was hunting in the area, and evidence of their flint tools has been found in the north of the village. Later, men would construct hill forts such as Bury Hill to the east, and Danebury to the south.

The particular Celtic tribe whose kingdom included Hampshire was the Atrebates (A-treb-a-tees). They were not just British, but also spread out across the European continent. When Julius Caesar planned his invasion of Britain in 55 BCE, he used a European Atrebates chieftain, Commius, to liaise with the Atrebates and other Celts in Britain.

But then Commius switched sides. He supported the Gallic and British tribes against the Roman invaders. When the Romans conquered Gaul, he fled to Britain and became king of the Atrebates from their home base in Silchester (which is north-east of Abbotts Ann).

One of Commius’s descendants was Verica, and he had lost the northern part of the Atrebates kingdom to another tribe. It’s believed that Verica may have asked Rome for help in getting his land back, and that is what led to the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 CE. The Atrebates did not fight against Rome this time, but submitted to its rule.

In the mid-1800s, the local priest Rev. Samuel Best discovered the remains of a Roman Villa in the south-west, dating to the third century CE. Several mosaics were found there, and these are now in the British Museum in London. The settlement was prospering.

But the Romans did not remain in Britain. Trouble at home caused them to retreat from their frontiers, and the Romanised Celts were left to fend for themselves. They requested help from Germanic tribes against the attacks they were facing, and so the Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed into Britain around the early 400s. And stayed.

It was the Saxons who moved in to the south of what we now call England. Winchester would become the capital for the kingdom of Wessex, and the ‘Anns’ fell into their lands. The descendants of the Wessex royal line eventually became rulers of England, and still are today.

It is during the Saxon times that we see the differing destinies for Abbotts Ann and Little Ann emerging.

Abbotts Ann to 1710

As we saw last time, King Alfred the Great commissioned an abbey to be set up at Winchester. This would be arranged by his son, King Edward. Abbotts Ann and its church would be amongst those original lands given to Hyde Abbey in 903, with an area of fifteen hides (a hide was what one team of oxen could manage in a day).

By the Domesday survey, Abbotts Ann held thirty households of which fourteen were free, twelve were the more-subservient smallholders, and four were slaves. It was a bustling place, and paid well in tax.

During the next several centuries, Abbotts Ann flourished despite a setback in 1349 when the Black Death epidemic swept across the country. The parish priest died along with many of the villagers.

A later rector also had a brush with death, but in a different fashion. It is recorded in 1390 that he killed a man and squandered church property.

By the time of the dissolution of the monasteries Abbotts Ann was worth around £33 annually (£28,000 today). In 1542 the church, manor and lands were granted to William Paulet Lord St. John. And like so many of the lords who got land from Henry VIII, Abbotts Ann was a tiny portion of what he actually owned. That being said, two locations in the village were named after him – St. John’s Cross and St. John’s House.

William had been born in 1483, so he had lived a long life by this point. Trained as a lawyer at the Inner Temple (you’ll recall they are one of four institutions able to create barristers in England), he was often appointed as a sheriff and also represented Hampshire in parliament.

One interesting role William held from 1540 was master of the brand new Court of Wards. The Tudors were making great use of the wardship system to their own benefit. This was where if a land-owning parent died and their child was under the age of inheritance, they and their estates would be cared for by an older person (normally a noble) until they came of age. The crown got one-third of revenues from the estate until that date. The role of the Court of Wards was to centrally administer these lands and ensure that the revenue was collected and paid – not into the treasury, but into the king’s private funds.

In 1549 he helped the Earl of Warwick in overthrowing the Duke of Somerset’s dictatorial regency over Edward VI, and was made Earl of Wiltshire and Lord Treasurer (See William Paget at Abbots Bromley for more information on this event). In 1551 he was then advanced to become Marquess (mar-kwiss) of Winchester. He would continue to hold the role of Lord Treasurer up to his death in 1572, when he was nearly ninety.

As Treasurer, he wanted to streamline the Exchequer (the English government’s accounting system) and remove corruption. But a series of scandals in the late 1560s showed his approach wasn’t the best, and instead another man’s ideas took charge.

William’s heir was John Paulet. When John inherited the manor he immediately mortgaged it, since his father had owed some debts to Queen Elizabeth. But John was already an older man by this point and died just four years later in 1576.

In 1574 a man called Thomas Marshall was born in Abbotts Ann. His father had married Mary Cotton, a widower whose husband Henry had come from the village. The Cottons had some property, and Thomas was given freedom of the borough. This meant he was able to become a member of parliament, and he did so in 1604 for Lymington, which is on the south coast.

Thomas was only involved with a couple of committees in parliament. He later moved to Downton, which is much closed to Lymington. In his will, he gave his property in Abbotts Ann to his widow, but she died before him and so it went to his son Thomas instead.

The succession of Abbotts Ann’s manor continued through the Marquesses of Winchester right up to the end of the 17 th Century. For much of that time they leased out the manor to other tenants. In 1630 Lord Edward Paulet the son of the fourth Marquess brought charges against Sir Francis Neale for breaking the terms of the tenancy.

By the end of the seventeenth century the Paulet’s manor at Abbotts Ann had fallen under new ownership, and in about 1710 it was purchased by Thomas Pitt, the recent governor of Madras, India.

Little Ann to 1710

Little Ann was given to Wherwell Abbey, a Benedictine nunnery, some time in the late tenth century. The abbess and her nuns would use the settlement as farmland for growing crops, and at the time of the Domesday survey there were fourteen families working the land. They also had the use of two mills.

Little Ann, worth about £9 at the dissolution, was granted to Thomas West, ninth Lord De La Warr (which is pronounced ‘Delaware’), who had specifically requested this land from Thomas Cromwell.

Thomas had no children, and his nearest heirs were his half-brother Owen’s daughters. Technically they would take on his title, but… well, they were women. Instead a new barony was created for the next male heir, William West. William was Thomas’s nephew through his half-brother George.

Around 1548, William tried to gain control of the family estates early by poisoning his uncle, but the attempt failed and the young man was sent to the Tower of London. Thomas had an Act of Parliament issued to get his nephew disinherited, which went into force in 1550 but was rescinded by the time he died in 1554.

Once Thomas died William received his inheritance and was made Baron De La Warr. William’s son and heir was also called Thomas. Thomas and his wife would have six sons and eight daughters. Thomas’s second son, Thomas, was born in 1577 and was the eldest son still alive when the first Thomas died in 1602.

It is this Thomas who was appointed governor-for-life and captain-general of the colony of Virginia in 1609, and arrived in 1610 just after Native Americans had attacked the colony. He took revenge in the same manner as the Powhatans attacked: burning crops and houses, and stealing provisions.

He returned to England in 1611 due to illness, before making his way back to Virginia in 1618 when the deputy governor Samuel Argall was accused of tyranny. Sadly he died while en-route, and it’s thought his body is buried in Jamestown, Virginia.

Delaware bay, river and state are named after him, and the Native American tribe the Lenapi Delaware Indians get their name from the area.

Thomas De La Warr had been granted license to sell Little Ann in 1615, but this was not taken up until 1695 and his descendant John De La Warr.

In 1710 Thomas Pitt purchased the hamlet. It was at this time that the history of the two settlements came together.

Abbotts Ann and Little Ann after 1710

Thomas Pitt had been born in 1653 in Blandford, Dorset. He was a merchant by trade, and in 1674 began working out of Balasore, India. But the East India Company – who had a monopoly on British trade from India – had not authorised this.

The way they acted in India was far beyond what we’d expect a normal trading company to do today. They had their own law and their own army. For about a decade, Thomas managed to avoid being captured and tried for his illegal trading by heading off to Persia to trade in sugar and horses.

But in 1683 the Company managed to catch up with him when he returned to England. He was arrested and fined £40,000. The subsequent legal battle kept him at home for some time, during which he purchased land in Dorset.

He had enough land, wealth and status to become an MP, and in both 1689 and 1690 he was elected MP for New Sarum (which is now Salisbury).

In 1693 Thomas made one last illegal trading trip to India. This time the East India Company realised that they really couldn’t do much about him. Instead they offered to make him an employee of the company, and he accepted.

In 1698 he became Governor of Fort St. George, in Madras, India, for a five-year appointment. There was a lot of trouble caused by a rival East India Company being set up. Thomas would not recognise it. He would not even deal with his cousin, John Pitt, an agent for the new company, instead calling him crack-brained and inexperienced!

The two rival companies merged in 1702, and Thomas was kept on as Governor of Madras. He extended his appointment by another five years, and was involved with an attempt to resolve a feud between some castes there. (The Hindu ‘caste’ system is a hierarchical ranking, determined by birth. Classes are distinguished by perceived levels of purity, and can determine what jobs a person is allowed to perform)

While in India, he acquired a magnificent rough diamond, which he paid £20,400 for – over £4 million today. The story behind the jewel is that it had been stolen from a slave and then sold to an Indian merchant called Jamchund. Jamchund then sold it on to Thomas.

His son Robert brought this diamond back to England where it was cut. The cost of cutting was £6,000 – over £1 million now – and this was about the same cost as all the diamond dust and cuttings that were removed to turn it into a beautiful gem.

Thomas Pitt returned to England in 1709 when his term ended, and he purchased Abbotts Ann the next year. Thomas would demolish the old church of St Mary’s and replace it with a new one in 1716.

During this time, many quiet negotiations were going on for the sale of the diamond, and in 1717 it was traded to the regent of France for £135,000 – nearly £30 million. Thomas Pitt’s diamond was placed in the French crown, and even today is still part of the French crown jewels that survived the revolution and have not been sold.

From 1710, Thomas resumed his position as an MP, for the constituency of Old Sarum. He also bought a lot of properties in the south of England besides Abbotts Ann. His particular favourite was Swallowfield, in Berkshire, which is where he died in 1726.

For all his buying and selling of diamonds, Thomas Pitt had been a cautious merchant. As he said to one of his sons, “Let it ever be a rule never to lend any money but where you have unquestionable security, for generally by asking for it you lose your friend and that too.”

Robert, the eldest Pitt son, would inherit his father’s lands and also his seat as MP for Old Sarum. This was because Old Sarum was a ‘rotten borough’ – the electorate was relatively small, and the Pitts could ‘persuade’ the voters whom they should choose as their representative.

Robert had several children, the most notable being William. William Pitt would one day become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and is known as ‘William Pitt the Elder’. But William was not the eldest son, and therefore does not have a connection to Abbotts Ann.

Instead, we look to Robert’s eldest, Thomas Pitt, for the continuation of the Abbotts Ann story. Thomas used his influence to be able to stand and be elected for multiple seats in parliament. Between 1727 and 1754 he was MP for Okehampton, Devon.

Thomas’s son Thomas sold the two Anns to Sir Brian Broughton-Delves in 1763. He died childless in 1766, leaving a substantial amount of Hampshire property including the two Anns to his wife Mary.

But Brian’s brother and legal heir Thomas Broughton got annoyed about this. When Mary had married Brian, this entitled her to an annuity of £1000. Thomas should have continued to pay his sister-in-law’s annuity when his brother died, but believed the property inheritance voided out the payment so he stopped making it. Mary, who had remarried, took up a lawsuit against her brother-in-law and won.

Mary died in 1812, and her new husband Henry Errington followed her in 1819. The property was passed on to her nephews William and Richard Hill.

Robert Tasker – Industrialist and Philanthropist

February 1806. In Stanton-St-Bernard, Wiltshire, Robert and William Tasker are the two sons of the local blacksmith. But they have ambitions for more. So Robert moves to Abbotts Ann, becoming assistant to blacksmith Thomas Maslen.

Robert, a non-conformist Christian (that is, Protestant but not Church of England), would use his cottage in the village for prayer meetings. The local landowners were very much conformist, however, and so he didn’t get much work from them. Instead he had to travel a lot to find work.

By now the Industrial Revolution was getting under way. Thanks to technological advancements such as steam power, mass-production enabled factories to be set up. People moved in their thousands from the country to the city. It was hard work, and dangerous, but it was better than subsistence farming.

At Abbotts Ann, the blacksmith’s forge became the hub for an ironworks, with a foundry and horse-driven bellows. They quickly moved locations to be close to the canal before railways, canals were the country’s highways. Raw materials came in, and finished products were sent out to market.

A waterwheel on the Pillhill Brook (formerly the Anna River) was installed and powered the bellows much better than a horse. The Abbotts Ann forge made agricultural wares such as ploughs, seed drills and food troughs. Later it would take on the name Waterloo Ironworks, after a famous British military victory in 1815.

The poor farmers of the area were not happy about the Waterloo Ironworks. The industrialisation of agriculture and the enclosure of land was putting them out of work. Wars with France had also sent the price of grain soaring, and the Corn Laws mentioned last time kept the prices up. What money they had could buy them little to eat.

All this anger culminated in November 1830 when a mob of about 300 attacked the ironworks. This caused a lot of damage. 30 men were initially arrested, of whom 14 were charged. 4 were let off, while 10 were sentenced to death. The death sentence was later exchanged for a one-way ticket to the Australian penal colonies.

In 1831, Robert Tasker bought land for a school at Abbotts Ann, and leased it to Rev. Samuel Best, the church rector. That’s the man who discovered the Roman villa we mentioned earlier. It was 39 years before education would become compulsory in England. Possibly thanks to Robert’s non-conformism, this would be one of the first schools in England to take children of all denominations of Christianity. Before then, most schools were Church of England only.

Samuel Best’s cousin Rev. Thomas Best took ownership of the Abbotts Ann estate in the 1840s, and both are commemorated in St Mary’s church.

Robert Tasker backed away from the business in 1836, but his brother William continued to run it. It passed to his sons William and Robert in 1858, and the company re-named to Tasker and Sons. William Tasker was an innovator, and patented designs for various agricultural products.

Their much younger brother, Henry, was apprenticed to a steam engineer in Lincoln in 1864. When he returned to the family firm, he brought the knowledge back with him and soon portable steam engines were being produced in Abbotts Ann.

They found savings in new mass-production techniques, and also switched to using steel for the steam engine’s boiler rather than wrought iron.

The company continued to produce steam engines into the 1920s. The First World War had been good for business, but afterwards they went into a slump. Their last steam engine was made in 1927.

The Land Settlement Association

In the early decades of the twentieth century, a lot of the Abbotts Ann land was sold off. Some of it was purchased by the government, which in 1934 created the ‘Land Settlement Association’ that would build houses and bring a large number of new families to the village.

In the 1930s the Great Depression caused a lot of unemployment in the North of England and Wales. The government wanted to tackle this, and the Land Settlement Association was one of the attempts to help resolve the issue.

New cottages with a few acres of land and some livestock were constructed in eighteen rural areas across England. Abbotts Ann’s Little Park Estate was the first to be purchased, though not the first to go into action. Further expansion of the project was halted due to the Second World War.

Private charities raised funds, which were matched by the government, and in July 1935 the first settlers showed up in the village. They would be helping build the new cottages, and meanwhile they lived in a cleaned-out old poultry house. Soon, construction was under way.

One the cottages had been built, the settlers moved in and were joined by their families. A lot of the new residents came from Durham, and I’m sure both they and the existing residents were quite wary of each other. This added on a quarter to the village’s size!

As time went by and the children grew up alongside each other the divisions faded. These children got jobs locally, and married others from Abbotts Ann and the surrounding area. Today you’d probably be hard-pressed to tell who was who.

The cost of managing the Land Settlement Association schemes spiralled throughout the 1960s, and eventually support was taken away from Little Park in 1974. Some tenants moved out, but others bought their homes. Some land was purchased for the Hampshire College of Agriculture.

Virgin’s Crowns

There was an ancient medieval tradition of awarding Virgin’s Crowns for children and women who died before they were married. They would have been born and grown up in the parish, known to everyone, and with an unsullied reputation.

For the funeral of the deceased, a crown would be carved of fresh-cut hazel wood. Black and white paper rosettes would decorate it, and five parchments hung from its frame. On one parchment was the name, age and year of death of the deceased, and on the other four were verses of a hymn. During the funeral procession, two young girls dressed in white would carry the crown on a white rod, and hang it at the front of the church. There it would stay for three weeks, inviting the villagers to challenge the purity of the deceased. Should there be no challenge, the crown would be hung near the church ceiling, with a sign bearing the name and date.

Abbotts Ann has a remarkable collection of forty-nine crowns, all dating from after Thomas Pitt rebuilt the church of St Mary’s in 1716. Indeed, it is one of the last places in Britain to maintain this tradition the most recent crown dates to 1973, marking the death of Lily Myra Annetts. Lily lived her whole life in Abbotts Ann since she was born in 1900. Her younger brother, William, died in 1918 and his crown also hangs in the church.

Next time, no more Abbots! We’re visiting Abdon in Shropshire, a remote, quiet village in the West Midlands. I do hope you’ll continue to join me as our tour of the British Isles continues.

Genetic Mechanisms of IEI and Mosaicism

The majority of IEI disorders are genetically inherited and follow three classic Mendelian modes of inheritance including autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), and X-linked (XL) [7]. Oftentimes the clinical presentation and family history can help in identifying the possible mode of inheritance in the patient. In AR model of inheritance, two copies of the altered gene are required for disease. In most cases, one disease-causing allele is passed on by each parent, who is typically asymptomatic or may have a subtle phenotype. In such families, there is a 25% chance of having an affected child, for example RAG1 or RAG2 deficiency causing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). A recessive model of inheritance includes homozygosity or compound heterozygosity of pathogenic variants. Autosomal dominant disorders require one variant allele to cause disease, with a 50% chance of passing the variant and disease on to a child, for example STAT3 dominant-negative variants leading to hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES). XL-IEI are generally due to loss-of-function variants in X-linked genes predominantly affecting males, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). There are exceptions to all of these depending on the molecular defects, for example both AD and AR forms of IFNGR1 deficiency leading to Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) [8], or female carriers of CYBB variants associated with XL chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) having infectious susceptibility and/or autoimmunity due to non-random X-chromosome inactivation [9]. In addition, digenic causes of IEIs are emerging, with variants in multiple genes leading to new disease phenotypes [6, 10]. For example, a patient was described with severe bacterial and viral infection associated with homozygous deleterious variants in both IFNGR2 and IFNAR1, leading to impaired type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses [11].

There are also many cases of seemingly “sporadic” disease, in which an affected child lacks a significant family history and is designated as the first individual in the family to harbor the pathogenic variant. Such variations are referred to as “de novo” variants as they appear for the first time in the family. If the genetic change, or mutation, occurs during the process of meiotic cell division in the female (egg) or male (sperm) germ cells upon conception, it results in an embryo that carries the pathogenic variant in every cell of the body and can be passed on to future generations. In some cases, these variants can also arise from post-zygotic mutations that occur very early in the zygote, within the first few rounds of cell division (Fig. 1a–b). If the variations arise from mitotic errors in the zygote in early stages of post-zygotic development or later stages, the resulting mosaic embryo will carry the variant only in a limited number of cell types or compartment/organ (Fig. 1c–d). Mosaicism refers to the biological phenomenon underlying such genetic alterations that gives rise to the presence of two or more population of cells with different genotypes in an individual [12]. The tissue distribution of the “variant” depends on the stage of embryogenic development at which the mutational event occurs and may affect only the somatic cells (somatic mosaicism), germ cells (gonadal/germline mosaicism), or both (gonosomal mosaicism). This further determines the potential for transmission of the variant to the future generations. For example, a healthy male with a disease-causing variant only in their sperm cells has the potential to pass this variant on to their child, as was described in an interesting case report about a healthy asymptomatic truck driver who fathered multiple children along his route in Brazil, with three half-siblings having activated PI3K delta syndrome 1 (APDS1) due to the same pathogenic variant in PIK3CD for which the father had gonadal mosaicism based on sequencing semen [13]. Similarly, an individual with disease caused by mosaicism will not pass the deleterious allele on to their children if it is present only in somatic cells, for example a variant only in hematopoietic cells. In some patients with apparently de novo variants, the variant was inherited from parents who are themselves unknowingly mosaic carriers for the disease-causing allele [14, 15]. Thus, determining the mosaic status in the parents can be important to inform recurrence-risk counseling.

Types of sporadic gene mutations leading to disease. (a, b) De novo variants in affected individuals arising from (a) mutations in paternal or maternal germline cells or (b) post-zygotic mutational events occurring within the first few cell divisions. (c, d) Somatic mosaicism with patients having than one DNA sequence arising from post-zygotic mutations occurring at (c) early stages of embryogenesis, leading to the presence of mutations in a subset of cells from multiple lineages or (d) later stages of development or in adulthood, with mosaicism restriction to a specific cell type/tissue, for example hematopoietic stem cells shown here. Images modified from Servier Medical Art, provided by Les Laboratoires Servier

Paracas, an introduction

Imagine living in the driest desert on earth located next to the richest ocean on earth. How would these extremes shape social and religious life? What kind of mythology would the drama of this landscape generate? Some ideas can be found in an ancient south-coastal Peruvian people now known as Paracas, from the later Inka Quechua word para-kos, meaning “sand falling like rain.” Paracas refers to both an arid south coastal peninsula and the culture that thrived in the region c. 700 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. The area is a starkly beautiful desert of ochre red, yellow, and gold sediments juxtaposed with the vivid Pacific Ocean. The ocean, enriched by the icy Peruvian current, is a haven for marine life. Ancient inhabitants, likely drawn to the ocean’s resources, had to make do with small coastal rivers trickling down from the Andes for fresh water and agricultural opportunities. In this environment, with visual contrasts so extreme the landscape approaches Color Field abstraction, small villages that depended on fishing and farming created one of the most extraordinary cultures and art traditions in the ancient Americas.

The Pacific bounty and the cotton grown in coastal river valleys gave Paracans the means to support a rich culture and forge reciprocal trade relationships with other Early Horizon highland cultures, principally Chavín. As a result, they assimilated and transformed art and ideas from the highlands, while inventing new beliefs and accompanying art forms that were largely inspired by their unique coastal ecology. Unlike other coastal and highland Andean communities, Paracans did not pursue monumental architecture, rather, they directed their considerable creative energies to textiles, ceramics, and personal regalia.

Illustration of mummy bundles at the bottom of a shaft-type tomb, from Julio C. Tello, Antiguo Perú: primera época, 1929, fig. 78

Belief in an afterlife led to the creation of subterranean burial chambers filled with elaborate mummy bundles and artifacts. Remarkably preserved in the arid coastal desert, the burials were forgotten and undisturbed for nearly 2,000 years. They were discovered in the early 20th century by Peruvian archeologist Julio C. Tello. The contents of these burials constitute the only known records of Paracas culture.

Paracas, detail of Linear Style embroidered mantle, 100 B.C.E.–100 C.E., camelid fiber, 267 x 131.9 cm (Brooklyn Museum)

Mummy bundles and personal adornment

Most individuals were modestly wrapped in rough, plain cotton fabric to form a mummy bundle. Some adult males, presumably elites, were wrapped in multiple layers of vividly colored, elaborately woven and embroidered textiles made with cotton from the coast and camelid wool imported from the highlands. Ceramics, gold items, spondylus shells, feather fans, and individual feathers also accompanied these individuals.

Before his death and burial, an elite Paracas man would have been a dazzling sight in the desert, showing off concentrated finery that exuded status, power, and authority. These individuals are generally understood to be the religious and political leaders of Paracas chiefdom society, whose leadership and ritual duties likely continued in the afterlife. Such elites needed all their ritual attire and accessories to perform their duties and roles effectively on both sides of life and death, much like the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Mummies may also have helped to maintain the tenuous desert agricultural cycle (often disturbed by El Niño climate events). As metaphorical seeds germinating the land, some bundles contained cotton sacks of beans rather than human bodies.[1]

Double-spout strap-handle vessel depicting a falcon (Paracas), 500-400 B.C.E., ceramic and resin-suspended paint, 11.43 × 12.38 × 12.38 cm (Dallas Museum of Art)

Burial artifacts

The Paracas achievements in ceramic and textile arts are among the most outstanding in the ancient Americas. The majority of Paracas ceramics were decorated after firing, with plant and mineral resin dyes applied between incised surface lines to build an image in abstract bands. In a final, transitional stage, pre-fire monochrome clay slips were applied to vessels in the shape of gourds, resulting in smooth, elegant wares.

Left: Pyro-engraved gourd bowl, Paracas culture, 5th–4th century B.C.E., 6.4 x 15.2 x 14.6 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) right: Pair of ceramic trumpets with post-fire paint, Paracas culture, 100 B.C.E.–1 C.E., 29.1 x 7.9 x 7.9 cm and 30.2 x 8.3 x 8.3 cm (Brooklyn Museum)

Other notable items found in the burials included pyro-engraved gourd bowls, as well as gourd rattles and ceramic bugles, revealing the culture’s interest in musical performance. Textiles were, without question, the most outstanding of the burial finds in both quantity and quality, with every known weaving and embroidery technique mastered. Their embroidered imagery is also a form of text and the source of nearly all interpretations of Paracas beliefs and conceptions of their ritual life.

Mythical imagery in textile art

Linear Style

Complex textile imagery was likely accompanied by equally complex oral narratives. At the start of the Paracas textile tradition, c. 700 B.C.E., the imagery is dominated by the traditional Andean animal triad of serpent, bird, and feline, rendered in an abstract style known as the Linear Style and accompanied by their own creation, the Oculate Beings.

Paracas, detail of Linear Style embroidered mantle with serpentine Oculate Being, 1–500 C.E., cotton, camelid fiber, 11.5 x 19.5 cm excluding fringe (The British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Oculate Beings were named for their enormous eyes, possibly inspired by the coastal burrowing owl or the enlarged eyes of a person in trance, and are believed to be key Paracan supernatural figures due to their frequent and enduring presence in Paracas art. Oculate Beings appeared in both humanoid and zoomorphic forms. Art historian Anne Paul identified eight distinct Oculate Beings based on different animals and poses: serpent, bird, and feline, symmetrical, seated, inverted head, flying, and with streaming hair.[2] Paracas embroiderers developed the visual potential of the Linear style to the highest degree, embedding images of animals and Oculate Beings into complex visual effects.

Block Color Style

Paracas, detail of Block Color style embroidered mantle with falcons, c. 100 C.E., cotton, camelid fiber, 298.9 x 137 cm (Brooklyn Museum)

Beginning around 200 B.C.E., textile embroiderers added the curvilinear Block Color style to their production, resulting in an explosion of new forms and figures. Block Color embroidery broke away from the Linear Style iconographic template to include human figures in ritual costume, human/animal composite figures, and elaborate composites of multiple animals. Sprouting seeds, insects, flowers, serpents, sharks, the pampas cat, and in particular a wide variety of coastal and highland birds dominate this later phase of Paracas embroidery, and there are as many distinct figures as there are individual garments. This final, figural phase also often featured human figures in a state of flight or trance, akin to those found on both earlier and contemporaneous ceramics. While precise meanings remain elusive, the imagery suggests an intense interest in agricultural fertility, as well as an increasingly complex mythology and accompanying ritual activities.

Supay Beach, Paracas Reserve, Peru (photo: Dr. Mary Brown, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

An enduring enigma

Much about Paracas culture will always remain a mystery. Their artistic record reveals a set of beliefs and rituals reflecting their culture’s dependence on the natural world and concern with perpetuating agricultural cycles, the important role of animals in political and religious activities, and a deep investment in the afterlife. The major works of Paracas artists, particularly those expressed in the embroidered figures that embellish woven textiles, are a pinnacle of Andean textile art and acknowledged as among the most accomplished fiber arts ever created. In the trajectory of Andean art, Paracas stands as an independent, inventive coastal counterpart to Chavín. Paracas culture was also a vehicle for transferring both textile and ceramic technology and iconography to the slightly later, south coastal Nasca culture, before disappearing forever into the golden desert sand.

  1. Lisa DeLeonardis and George F. Lau, “Life, Death, and Ancestors,” in Andean Archeology, ed. Helaine Silverman (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), p. 103
  2. Anne Paul, “Continuity in Paracas Textile Iconography and its Implications for the Meaning of Linear Style Images,” in The Junius B. Bird Conference on Andean Textiles, ed. Anne Pollard Rowe (Washington, D.C.: Textile Museum, 1986), p. 88

Additional resources:

Anne Paul, Paracas Ritual Attire: Symbols of Authority in Ancient Peru (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990)

Anne Paul, ed. Paracas Art and Architecture: Object and Context in South Coastal Peru (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1990)

Mosaic from Abbots Ann - History

Chemical pathologists' role as part of multidisciplinary teams' approach to health-care delivery

Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu, IM Abdulazeez, AA Akande, AB Okesina
Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication30-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu
Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atp.atp_20_17

Background: The care of the sick has gone beyond a 'one-man show' since the medical profession is dynamic. The dynamism of the profession is to entrench the patients' survival. This is being done by introducing the concept of Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) approach to patients' management. Objective: This review is to have a look at the various roles or ways the Chemical Pathologists can fix into MDT as laboratory physicians. Method: This article discusses the definitions and some terminologies in Chemical Pathology and concept of MDT. Its approach in medicare, went through the historical line and evolution of the subspecialty of Chemical Pathology. It discusses the role of Chemical Pathologists in MDT as well as pros and cons of the concept of MDT. Finally, it also discusses how to improve MDTs in Nigerian Tertiary Hospitals. It was essentially based on literatures written in English. Conclusion: This review article has tried to discuss roles of Chemical Pathologists in MDTs approach to patients' management in our hospitals not leaving out the historical aspects, its advantages, disadvantages, barriers and possible way forward for the suggested challenges.

Keywords: Chemical pathologist, health care, multidisciplinary approach, tertiary hospitals

How to cite this article:
Biliaminu SA, Abdulazeez I M, Akande A A, Okesina A B. Chemical pathologists' role as part of multidisciplinary teams' approach to health-care delivery. Ann Trop Pathol 20178:11-6

How to cite this URL:
Biliaminu SA, Abdulazeez I M, Akande A A, Okesina A B. Chemical pathologists' role as part of multidisciplinary teams' approach to health-care delivery. Ann Trop Pathol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Jun 19]8:11-6. Available from:

The practice of medical profession is very dynamic. The dynamism of this profession is entrenched on the survival of the patients. One of the various means of achieving this is the introduction of the concept of multidisciplinary approach to health-care/multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). These steps are being put in place to ensure that patients have the opportunity or rather advantage of enjoying maximum possible care in any health facility for their survival.

In this approach, inputs are usually obtained and integrated from multiple sources depending on, among other factors, stage of disease progression, pain and other symptoms, patient's and family's psychological state, social and practical requirements, and available resources. Doctors from various areas of specialties including chemical pathologists, nursing staff, social worker, and many others involved in the multifaceted care of the patient form the MDT, which provides this care in a coordinated manner so as to provide continuity of care.

There are many advantages of the multidisciplinary approach, and its efficacy has been demonstrated convincingly in increasing satisfaction of the patient and family, improving quality of life, and even a modest increase in survival for some patients. However, the multidisciplinary approach has its own barriers and challenges. Some of these can be at least partly overcome with an effective coordination of care between different locations, personnel, and time points of care.

The literature suggests that a well-represented MDT include specialists such as gastroenterologists, surgeons, oncologists, endocrinologists, interventional radiologists, pathologists, nuclear medicine experts, nurses, and social workers/case managers. [1],[2]

For example, for more than 20 years, journal articles published by leaders in the field have advocated a multidisciplinary approach when assessing management options for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] Dr. Larry Kvols in his own words in support of MDTs says "Because there are so many therapeutic options available for patients with NETs. and each specialist brings a different perspective. It's important that we optimize care for these patients. It's important to integrate that care and use it in a timely fashion."

While trying to support the concept of MDTs, Dr. Lowell Anthony also says "I think the appreciation of all the many tests that need to be done, all the many treatments that are out there… and then the order of those treatments is challenging. It really involves more than one decision by one specialty. It really involves an integration."

  • The term chemical pathology can be defined in various ways some of which are:
    1. Chemical pathology is the branch of pathology that deals with the biochemical basis of disease and the use of biochemical tests for screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and management [10]
    2. Chemical Pathology is broadly defined as "the chemistry of human health and disease" or "chemistry in connection with the management of patients, as it applies in a hospital laboratory" [10]
    3. When we call it clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry, it means the study of the biochemical basis of diseases, and the application of biochemical and molecular techniques in diagnosis as well as in the management of diseases [11]
    4. An allied subspecialty of chemical pathology is metabolic medicine which deals with metabolic diseases in all its ramifications
  • A discipline (or specialism) is knowledge or wisdom associated with one academic field of the study or profession. A discipline incorporates types of knowledge, expertise, skills, people, projects, communities, problems, challenges, studies, inquiry, approaches, and research areas that are strongly associated with academic areas of study or areas of professional practice. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines while that of art are called the humanities [12],[13]
  • Interdisciplinary knowledge is the knowledge extensions that exist between or beyond existing academic disciplines or professions. The new knowledge may be claimed by members of none, one, both, or an emerging new academic discipline or profession [12],[13]
  • Multidisciplinary knowledge is associated with more than one existing academic discipline or profession. For the purpose of this discussion treatise, multidisciplinary approach in patients management means the coming together of all relevant specializations and subspecializations of medicine in the management of patients. [12],[13]

The services of the department of chemical pathology of any tertiary hospital are not only for that hospital but also to the neighboring health institutions, towns, and states if need be. It also provides teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

This is a specialist who after completing the first degree in medicine (MBBS), followed it with internship and community service (NYSC in Nigeria parlance), then enter a residency program (accredited training program) as a prospective trainee.

Qualification as a specialist chemical pathologist requires the candidate to obtain the Membership/Fellowship of a training College of Pathologists.

In other words, a chemical pathologist is a doctor who specializes in clinical chemistry by obtaining the membership/fellowship of a training college of pathologists.

  • Charles J. B. Williams, the first President of the Pathological Society of London, told of a house call early in his career and the favorable impression he had made by his "habit of bringing … not only a stethoscope, but also test-tubes and a few reagents for the examination of the state of the secretions of the patient" [Figure 1] and [Figure 2][14] Bull. Hist. Chem. 24 (1999). Published by American Academy of Sciences.
  • Alfred B. Garrod described the application of chemistry to pathology and therapeutics as being of the greatest importance to the medical practitioner. "How very imperfect our knowledge … of the healthy and diseased condition of the body, if we do not call in the aid of chemistry to elucidate its phenomena" [15]
  • With the start of the 20 th century, clinical chemistry emerged into its own space on the mosaic of medical practice
  • The United States led the way with the decisive breakthrough two names dominated this period: Otto Knut Folin (1867�) and Donald Dexter van Slyke (1883�) [16]
  • Their systematic explorations on blood and urine set the style and shaped the parameters for clinical chemistry for the remainder of the century as they developed practical and clinically applicable methods of analysis [17],[18]
  • On the basis of a new approach to methodology, analysis of small volumes of biological fluids, they determined reference intervals, correlated variations with pathologic conditions, and elucidated metabolic pathways in health and disease
  • Through their research and teaching of biochemistry and clinical chemistry, they demonstrated that chemists could make great contributions to advances in medical diagnosis and the treatment of disease
  • While trying to emphasize the import of chemical pathologist in MDTs, Dr Jarikre of blessed memory who happens to be a Nigerian Consultant Chemical Pathologist in his words used to say that "hardly could anybody die without biochemical derangement!!!" This is just to show the import of Chemical Pathology in medical practice because it is very rare that any death will occur without biochemical derangement.
  • In 1958, Van Slyke in his words characterized "the complete clinical chemist. For clinical chemistry includes, not only the development of methods, but study of all the phenomena of the body's normal chemical processes, and of the alterations that they undergo in disease" [19]
  • John Brown of Edinburgh wrote, "Let us by all means avail ourselves of the unmatched advantages of modern science, and of the discoveries which every day is multiplying with a rapidity which confounds let us convey into, and carry in our heads as much as we safely can, of new knowledge from Chemistry, Statistics, the Microscope, the Stethoscope, and all new helps and methods" thus the cradle of MDT.

The roles and daily responsibilities of the clinical chemist extend far beyond the simple definitions listed above, the following are, however, some of them:

  • As laboratory directors, competency characteristics would include effective administration of laboratory services, strategic planning, and defining standards of performance, research, and development
  • Additional characteristics include communication of laboratory data, functioning effectively with regulatory and administrative groups, and providing educational direction.
  • The management, assurance of quality, and provision of advice on the choice of tests and assessment of the significance of the results (especially with some of the more uncommon tests) are the province of the chemical pathologist
  • Chemical pathologists have many responsibilities some of which are further summarized as follows:

    First, with medical laboratory scientists, laboratory technicians, and laboratory assistants, there is provision of a reliable analytical service (for example, measuring blood/plasma/serum/urinary analytes, indices of liver function, hormones, drugs, and tumor markers in hundreds of patients' samples every day)

In an effort to provide effective and efficient care to patients with various health conditions, the US health-care system has done much to redesign its delivery system. Developing an approach to meet the high demands of patients and to best utilize resources became necessary. The result is the common use now of a MDTs approach.

When properly implemented, this MDT approach provides positive measurable outcomes in managing our patients. MDTs, as the name implies, are teams of people from different disciplines that come together for a common purpose. With a diverse group of health-care professionals, such as physicians, pathologists, nurses, pharmacists, dieticians, and health educators, social service and mental health providers, there is more certainty that all of the needs of the patient will be met.

The MDTs approach is used in a variety of different setting including health care, education, mental health, and criminal justice. The concept is that it is best to address an issue or problem from all angles to maximize our gains.

The MDTs professionals can change from case to case depending on the diagnosis and social or personal situation of the patient. In general, the team will include medical professionals from various disciplines, homecare professionals if needed, social service and mental health professionals, nutrition as well as health educators.

The benefits to the professionals are the opportunity to enhance the professional skills and knowledge of individual team members by providing a forum for learning more about the strategies, resources, and approaches used by various disciplines.

As a member of an MDT, the chemical pathologist and other specialists work together to develop a plan of action or a treatment plan and then combine their efforts toward initiating treatment.

The patient is involved in every aspect and is encouraged to involve family as well, as this support can improve outcomes in the long term.

We should all know that the most important member of the MDT is the patient!!!

The benefits of a MDT for the patient are enormous some of which are:

  • Everyone knows what everyone else is doing
  • The ill patients are not responsible for sharing information not fully understood
  • The patient will have family and social supports as part of the team.
  • MDT improves care by increasing coordination of services, especially for complex problems
  • It integrates health care for a wide range of problems and needs
  • It empowers patients as active partners in care
  • It can serve patients of diverse cultural backgrounds
  • It uses time and money more efficiently.

For health-care professionals:

  • MDT increases professional satisfaction
  • It facilitates shift in emphasis from acute, episodic care to long-term preventive care
  • It enables the practitioner to learn new skills and approaches
  • It encourages innovation
  • It allows providers to focus on individual areas of expertise.

For the health-care delivery system:

  • MDT holds potential for more efficient delivery of care
  • It optimizes resources and facilities
  • It decreases burden on acute care facilities as a result of increased preventive care
  • It facilitates continuous quality improvement efforts.

For educators and students:

  • MDT offers multiple health-care approaches to study
  • It fosters appreciation and understanding of other disciplines
  • It models strategies for future practice
  • It promotes student participation
  • And also challenges norms and values of each discipline.
  • MDT might be complicated by:
  • The utilization of many professionals on a single case might lead to their underutilization as well
  • It can be expensive recruiting highly paid (and busy) health professionals.

Despite the fact that team approach has many benefits, it could be hampered by some barriers and the chemical pathologist need to be able to work to overcome some of these common barriers to multidisciplinary care such as:

  • MDTs being seen as revolutionary by skill-centered specialists it is fundamentally an expression of being guided by wholism rather than reductionism
  • A major barrier such as the long-established tradition of highly focused professional practitioners cultivating a protective (and thus restrictive) boundary around their area of expertise.

Other barriers include the following:

  • Difficulty in coordinating schedules and response of busy health professionals (whom are members of numerous MDTs)
  • Inadequate support (infrastructure and resources)
  • Lack of understanding about how teams function
  • Individual accountability
  • Paucity of chemical pathologists.
  • Joint deliberation by team members who have different perspectives and areas of expertise often results in insights and solutions to problems that seldom can be achieved by one health professional working in isolation
  • Conflict may encourage innovation and creative problem-solving, and successful resolution of differences may foster increased trust and understanding among team members
  • Failure to deal effectively with conflict may, however, lead to low morale, withdrawal, condescension, anger and burn-out!!!
  • Strategies that chemical pathologist and other members of a team may use to maintain group collaboration and resolving health-care issues include the following:
  • They set standards for accomplishing tasks and identify norms for team behavior
  • Keep the door open for less talkative members and encourage each to contribute
  • Seek consensus in arriving at the best decision
  • Seek harmony when conflict occurs by listening carefully and respectfully to all opinions, brainstorming possible solutions, and focusing on common interests
  • Give and receive feedback about positive and/or negative behavior
  • Review and evaluate progress at conclusion of interaction.

The Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital has to some extent been involved in MDTs management of patients in the hospital, though there is still room improvement.

The following are some of the examples of previous participation of Chemical Pathology Department in MDTs approach to health care at UITH, Ilorin are:

The five strategic directions that guide the improved multidisciplinary care in Nigerian Tertiary Hospitals are:

  • Creating and supporting effective MDTs
  • Establishing and strengthening multidisciplinary meetings
  • Building effective team linkage
  • Fortification of the telemedicine facility in the hospital
  • Judicious use of mobile telephone facility in communication.

This review article has tried to discuss roles of chemical pathologists in MDTs approach to management of patients in health-care facilities not forgetting the historical aspects. Its advantages, disadvantages, barriers, and possible way forward for the challenges were also suggested. It is hoped that if all health facilities imbibe the concept of MDTs in patients' management, it will avail them the opportunity or rather advantage of enjoying maximum possible care, thus ensuring the chance of their survival. The era of sole ownership or management of patient should be discouraged or completely discarded!

A high level of tetrasomy 9p mosaicism but no clinical manifestations other than moderate oligozoospermia with chromosomally balanced sperm: a case report

Tetrasomy 9p (ORPHA: 3310) (i(9p)) is a rare chromosomal imbalance. It is characterized by the presence of a supernumerary chromosome incorporating two copies of the short arm of chromosome 9 and is usually present in a mosaic state postnatally. Depending on the level of mosaicism, the phenotype ranges from mild developmental delay to multiple congenital anomalies with severe intellectual disability. Here, we report on a patient diagnosed with i(9p) mosaicism after the recurrent failure of in vitro fertilization. Although the patient’s clinical phenotype was normal, the level of mosaicism varied greatly from one tissue to another. A sperm analysis evidenced subnormal spermatogenesis with chromosomally balanced spermatozoa and no risk of transmission to the offspring. Although individuals with i(9p) and no clinical manifestations have rarely been described, the prenatal diagnosis of this abnormality in the absence of ultrasound findings raises a number of questions.

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6. William Borden Residence

Just across the street from the Rockefeller McCormick house, William Borden hired Robert Morris Hunt to build his Chateauesque mansion in 1884. Borden was a partner of Marshall Field, a mining engineer, and an adventurer. In his lifetime, he led expeditions in the Bering Sea north of the Arctic Circle. Borden’s granddaughter Ellen lived in the home with her husband, Adlai Stevenson II.

The house was made of smooth-faced Indiana limestone and featured a slate roof articulated with turrets and dormers. It remained with the Borden family until it was demolished in the early 1960s. Today the Carlyle Apartments occupy the site.


Today the village contains a village shop run by volunteers (which itself contains a post office - one of many recently threatened with closure), which achieved first prize in the Best Rural Retailer 2009 competition. There is also a parish church (St. Mary's), famous for its box pews and 49 virgin crowns. The village also has a village hall, a primary school, a playing field and a pub called the Eagle, as well as another well known pub in the neighbouring village of Little Ann, called the Poplar Farm Inn. The village is also home to one of the last remaining classic red phoneboxes left in England. The church displays the Maidens' garland, a funerary custom for deceased virgins which dates back from the 18th Century. [ 1 ]

Inspiration of the sea

Short answer: The quality of the light. Golden hour in Gloucester languishes throughout the entire day, illuminating backdrops in a glow that would put Johannes Vermeer’s work to shame. (Sorry, Vermeer.) No, we’re not just looking at Cape Ann through rose-colored glasses—according to Barker, this otherworldly light is caused by the presence of granite along the seabed.

Still, it’s hard to believe that a pull-yourself-up-by-your-rubber-bootstraps fishing community also boasts atmospherics recalling a 19th-century oil painting. A lot of artists probably had their doubts, too—until they actually arrived, and finally saw the light.

“My work is happiest in this light,” says artist Jacqueline Ganim-DeFalco, who assembles abstract jewelry from sea glass found on Cape Ann’s shores. “And I know painters especially love the light because the scenes are always changing here.”

At the Cape Ann Museum, you’ll see how a variety of artists translated Gloucester’s canvas-worthy harbor onto actual canvases. Most notable is native Fitz Henry Lane, whose 19th-century works originally hung in the shop windows on Main Street or in the living rooms of local ship captains.

Art totally gets into your DNA when you move here.”

Now, Lane’s paintings have found a permanent home in the museum’s newly refurbished gallery dedicated to this hometown hero. There’s also a sculpture of this favorite native son perched on a rock near the water, bronze sketch pad and pencil in hand.

Many of the artists here set up their easels at Rocky Neck, a small peninsula in Gloucester Harbor that became one of the country’s oldest working art colonies. Now on the National Register of Historic Places, Rocky Neck has offered painters, sculptors, and writers—including Rudyard Kipling and Louisa May Alcott—a home base for more than 150 years. Aside from its sweeping views of the harbor, this area also gave artists a front-row seat into the daily lives of local fishermen.

“The maritime industry in Gloucester has always provided captivating subject matter for artists,” says Courtney Richardson, director of the Rocky Neck Art Colony. “There’s a funny story about a fisherman who was invited by an artist to model. The man got home from work, washed up, shaved, and dressed to the nines, only to be sent home by the artist who told him to return when his beard grew back, and he was wearing his foul-weather gear.”

Gloucester’s tradition of fishing history started in Paleolithic days, when Indigenous communities spent summers catching seafood and farming the land along the cape, leaving behind piles of shells or “middens.” When the English arrived in 1623, the Algonquian-speaking Pawtucket tribe already occupied self-sustaining settlements along the harbor. You can learn more about Indigenous history in Gloucester, and view artifacts like arrowheads, fish hooks, and agricultural tools, at the Cape Ann Museum.

Schooners, a type of ship well suited to cod-fishing, were invented in Gloucester, Massachusetts. This 1930s image shows the launch of the Gertrude L. Thebaud.

Gloucester fishermen are shown mending their nets in 1975.

Gloucester has baited commercial fishermen with the promise of fresh cod since 1623. The first schooner, a sailing vessel that revolutionized the fishing industry, was developed here in 1713. Even the iconic, yellow-clad Gorton’s Fisherman character originally hails from Gloucester, as does the frozen seafood company that created him. (Look closely at the logo on those fish sticks: he’s at the helm of a schooner.)

Tales of this port city have also made waves on screen, from the tragic story of a Gloucester-based crew in The Perfect Storm to the deep-sea dispatches on National Geographic’s Wicked Tuna. The reality show, which follows a crew of Gloucester’s own as they attempt to reel in prized bluefin tuna, premieres its 10th season on February 21, 2021.


The Nineties saw a major programme of renovation carried out on the cathedral over a number of years. The building was re-roofed and the heating and lighting systems were revamped. The Compton Organ-one of only three of its type in Europe, was rebuilt and the interior of the building was repainted .

The renovation works were completed ahead of schedule and a special Mass took place on November 23rd,1997-the Feast of Christ the King,to celebrate the re-opening. A Guidebook to the cathedral written by Father Paul Connell was published to mark the occasion. .

In 1992,the cathedral Museum was awarded a Gulbenkian Award for Best Small Museum of the Year. The award was presented to Museum Curator,Sister Maureen Waldron by President Mary Robinson. In May 1998,the Museum was visited by President Mary McAleese and her husband.

Shortly before Christmas 1993,a candle was thrown into the cathedral crib. The arson caused extensive damage to the crib and to the figures in it. Fortunately not all the figures -which dated back to the opening of the old cathedral in 1836 had been placed in the crib. A new crib was designed by Karen Weavers of the Abbey Theatre and was unveiled in time for Christmas 1994.

Bishop John McCormack,who had served as Bishop of Meath from 1968 until illness forced his retirement in 1990,died in September of 1996. His funeral Mass was attended by Cardinal Cathal Daly,Cardinal Desmond Connell and many other members of the Hierarchy.He was buried in the cathedral grounds alongside three of his predecessors. The year 1996 also saw the death of Phil Mullally,who had served as sacristan of the cathedral from 1936 until 1986.

In March 1996,the Mullingar Choral Society staged their annual concert in the cathedral for the first time. The work performed was Mendelssohn’s “Elijah”. The Society have returned to the cathedral for their Spring concert every year bar one since then.Their 2008 performance of Karl Jenkins’ powerful work,” The Armed Man” included the first ever rendition of the Muslim call to Prayer-the Adhaan in the cathedral,which was given by Muezzin,Junaid Yousuf from Dublin.

‪1999- 2009‬
On December 20th 1999,RTE radio broadcast live from the cathedral in a programme presented by Marian Finucane. Eleven days later huge crowds gathered inside and outside the building to welcome in the Third Millennium of the Christian Era and the 21st Century. The Mullingar Town Band played as the bells rang out to mark the start of 2000AD. During the Jubilee Year,the cathedral museum was opened for visits by people from every parish in the Diocese. RTE would return to the cathedral in 2001 to film the Easter Ceremonies that year.

May of 2001 saw immense crowds visit the cathedral to see the relics of St Theresa of Lisieux The relics arrived at the cathedral as part of a nationwide tour on the afternoon of May 17th and remained there until the following afternoon.Queues stretched the length of the cathedral from the altar rails to the main door and continued down the steps to the main gate and along Mary Street.

On September 14th,a much sadder occasion again drew huge crowds to the cathedral as a special Ecumenical Service was held on the National Day of Mourning for the victims of the 9/11 terror attacks in the United States.
In August 2004,the remains of four Augustinian monks who had lived in the Augustinian monastery in Mullingar in the 13th century were re-interred in the cathedral grounds. Their remains had been uncovered in 1996 in the Austin Friars/Barrack St area of the town.Four of the skeletons uncovered were wearing scallop shells showing that they had made the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostello.

In December 2007,Mullingar’s most famous 20th century citizan,Joe Dolan,died aged 68. His removal to the cathedral on the evening of December 28th and his funeral Mass on the 29th saw the cathedral packed to overflowing. Those in attendance included numerous stars of the entertainment world.. The preacher was Father Brian D’arcy.
The congregations attending the cathedral masses were now in decline.But they were becoming more diverse. This was shown at Christmas 2006 when the parish bulletin gave Christmas greetings in 17 languages-including Polish,Lithuanian,Hindi and Zulu.
President McAleese paid her second official visit to the cathedral in 2003 when she attended a special Mass to mark the bi-centenary of St Finian’s College. Other special anniversary events in the cathedral during the Noughties included the Loreto College 125th anniversary in 2006,the St Mary’s CBS 150th anniversary,also in 2006,and the 400th anniversary of the Loreto Order,which was marked in January 2009 with a Mass attended by pupils,staff and past pupils from every Loreto School in Ireland and overseas representatives as well. Those in attendance included pupils and teachers from the newest Loreto school-in Rombak,South Sudan.

In January 2009,Bishop Smith celebrated the Silver Jubilee of his consecration. The Jubilee Mass was attended by more than 2000 people from all over the Diocese and beyond. The Papal Nuncio and many other Irish bishops were also there. It was the first time since Bishop Thomas Nulty in 1889 that a Bishop of Meath had celebrated his Silver Jubilee.
In November 2009,the remains of Bishop Matthew Gaffney,who had declared in 1900 that Meath should have a new cathedral worthy of its history and significance,were brought from Multyfarnham Friary and re-interred in the cathedral grounds as part of the ceremonies to mark the 70th anniversary of the consecration of the cathedral and the centenary of Bishop Gaffney’s death. Other events to mark the cathedral’s 70th anniversary included the publication of a history of the cathedral-“Beneath Cathedral Towers”,and the placing of a relic of St Oliver Plunkett in the altar.
In July 2013,a new art work in the cathedral grounds was unveiled by the Spanish Ambassador to Ireland. The art piece depicts the Santiago Scallop shell and is a tribute to the Augustinian monks who lived and worked in Mullingar between 1227 and 1539. The art work is located beside the spot where four of the monks were re-buried in 2004.

In September 2014 major celebrations took place to mark the 75th anniversary of the consecration of the cathedral. A special Mass was held on September 7th attended by the Papal Nuncio,Dr Charles Browne. The guest preacher was Cardinal Timothy Dalton of New York. He was born in St Louis-the archdiocese of Westmeath born Cardinal John Glennon,who had helped raise funds for the cathedral and preached at its Dedication and Consecration.

In an echo of Cardinal Glennon’s cry ” Christ Lives,Christ Conquers,Christ Reigns! ,Cardinal Dalton called out in Spanish, “Que Viva Cristo Rey” (“Long Live Christ Our King” ). The music for the mass was provided by the cathedral choirs and organist and by the Mullingar Choral Society. After the Service there was a street party in Mary Street,organised by Father Michael Kilmartin and the Cathedral House staff.

Watch the video: Indirect Face Tape Mosaic Method (July 2022).


  1. Orren

    Now all is clear, thanks for the help in this question.

  2. Yonris

    I am better, perhaps, promolchu

  3. Todd

    Thank you !, to the quote pad!

  4. Wittatun

    Bright !!!!!

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