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What is the smallest country in the world?

What is the smallest country in the world?


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It may be difficult to imagine, but there is a country in the world smaller than New York City’s Central Park and one with a population smaller than a typical high-school class. Based on landmass, Vatican City is the smallest country in the world, measuring just 0.2 square miles, almost 120 times smaller than the island of Manhattan. Situated on the western bank of the Tiber River, Vatican City’s 2-mile border is landlocked by Italy. The official seat of the pope of the Catholic Church since 1377, Vatican City was not declared an independent state until the Lateran Treaty of 1929. After years of power struggles between popes and the political leaders of Italy over who could claim supreme authority in the region, Benito Mussolini and Pope Pius XI agreed to the Lateran Pacts on February 11, 1929, which created the independent state of Vatican City for the Catholic Church in exchange for the pope’s recognition of the Kingdom of Italy. Today, nearly 75 percent of the Vatican’s citizens are members of the clergy.

In comparing countries by population, however, Vatican City loses out to the Pitcairn Islands for the title of smallest country. Compared to the 800-850 residents who live in Vatican City, the population of the Pitcairn Islands has fluctuated between 40 and 60 inhabitants over recent years. This British territory, located in the Pacific Ocean halfway between Peru and New Zealand, is composed of four islands, but Pitcairn is the only one that is inhabited. Pitcairn’s tiny population is also noteworthy due to its peoples’ heritage: They are descended from Tahitians and the mutineers on the Bounty. Fletcher Christian and eight other mutineers fled to Tahiti after their revolt at sea, but when hostilities arose with their new neighbors and they began to fear arrest, they escaped to the deserted island of Pitcairn to hide from British authorities, bringing a handful of Tahitians with them. The British rediscovered the islands in 1791 during a search for the mutineers, and they were named a British colony in 1838. Though the population has swelled since then to a whopping 223 just before World War II, the current population stands at about 50.

Considering the 50 smallest countries by landmass are each less than one-quarter of the size of Rhode Island and the 50 smallest countries by population are each about one-sixth the size of Washington, D.C., it really is a small world after all.


6 Small Kingdoms of the World

The 20th century saw the fall of many monarchies and their replacement by republican forms of government around the world. There are still a significant number of countries and smaller political units that retain monarchies, however. These six countries are some of the smallest kingdoms of the world. Some are led by hereditary rulers, and others by leaders chosen by the people.


Relief

Relief in El Salvador is dominated by the central highlands, consisting largely of a west-east line of volcanoes (some of which are still active) crossing the centre of the country. This volcanic range includes 20 cones, from the westernmost Izalco Volcano (6,447 feet [1,965 metres]), through those of San Salvador (6,430 feet [1,960 metres]) and San Miguel (6,988 feet [2,130 metres]), to that of Conchagua (4,078 feet [1,243 metres]) in the extreme east. These volcanoes are separated by a series of basins (commonly referred to as El Salvador’s central plain), lying at elevations of between 3,500 and 5,000 feet (1,000 and 1,500 metres), whose fertile soils, derived from volcanic ash, lava, and alluvium, have for centuries supported the cultivation of crops. To the south, where the central highlands give way to the Pacific coast, is a narrow coastal plain with average elevations of between 100 and 500 feet (30 and 150 metres).

North of the central highlands, and parallel to them, a broad interior plain drained by the Lempa River is situated at elevations between 1,300 and 2,000 feet (400 and 610 metres). Intermittently broken by ancient dormant volcanic structures and adversely affected by poor drainage and high soil acidities, this interior plain has provided a less-attractive environment for human habitation.

Extending along the entire northern border region are a range of highlands, with average elevations of 5,000 to 6,000 feet (1,500 to 1,800 metres), formed by ancient and heavily eroded volcanic structures. The steepness of slope, excessive forest clearance, and overuse of soils have led to serious deterioration of the environment of this northern region. In the extreme northwestern part of the country, there are limited outcrops of limestone rock associated with the older nonvolcanic structures of Honduras.


History of the Ride – ‘It’s A Small World’

When people think of iconic Disney rides, one of the first ones they think of is It’s a Small World.

The History of It’s a Small World

It’s a Small World was originally created as a ride called Children of the World, for the 1964 New York World’s Fair UNICEF pavilion, sponsored by Pepsi.

(photo credit: Disney Parks)

Designed my WED Enterprises, they were only given 11 months to complete their design. The ride itself was built at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, CA.

When they wanted to come up with a special look, they tasked Mary Blair to come up with the “whimsical design” we all know and love. She had experience on movies like Cinderella and Peter Pan.

With Mary Blair, Marc Davis designed the scenes and characters.

(photo credit: Designing Disney) (Photo credit: Designing Disney)

Marc Davis’s wife Alice Davis worked on costuming. Rolly Crump and Marc Davis worked together with 30 artists. They created characters out of foam and paper mache, based on the designs Mary Blair had done for Little Golden Books.

Mary Blair and Alice Davis

The dolls themselves were sculpted by Blaine Gibson and designed by Gibson and Greg S. Marinello. There are over 300 of them in this attraction.

(Alice Davis photo from: Disney Style) (Walt Disney and Blaine Gibson photo credit: Today in Disney History)

Traveling by Boat

When it came to the boat / ride vehicle aspect of the attraction, Arrow Development were brought in to create the boats used.

Arrow Development Boat Track Testing (photo credit: The Enchanted Manor)

They filed two patents for the Walt Disney company for the boat cars and ride guidance system.

These would later be installed at Disneyland. The ride system was so effective at the World’s Fair, they scrapped their plans for a walk-through on Pirates of the Caribbean and change it to the smae boat system It’s A Small World used.

Singing in Harmony

Originally the song was to be called Children of the World, featuring the national anthems around the world, but the result was anything but harmonic. Walt Disney wanted to create a simple song that could be translated and sung in different languages, yet stay unified and harmonic. The Sherman Brothers then wrote “It’s a Small World” to be played as a “round.” Like you would hear with a song such as “Row, Row, Row Your Boat.”

Walt Disney enjoyed the song so much that he renamed the attraction to It’s a Small World after the song.

1964 New York World’s Fair

On April 22, 1964 the World’s Fair opened and It’s a Small World was a hit.

The ride used .60 tickets for children and .95 tickets for adults. In the two seasons it ran, they collected ten million tickets. The money was donated to UNICEF.

By 1965 they added this write up the guidebook.

“A salute to the children of the world, designed by Walt Disney, presents animated figures frolicking in miniature settings of many lands. Visitors are carried past the scenes in small boats. In an adjoining building Pepsi sponsors exhibits by the U.S. Committee for the United Nations Children’s Fund. Above the pavilion rises the 120-foot Tower of the Four Winds, a fanciful creation of coloured shapes that dance and twist in the breeze.”

(The Tower of Four Winds as well as extra set pieces of It’s a Small World were designed by Rolly Crump.)

After the New York World’s Fair

The World’s Fair closed and It’s a Small World was relocated to Disneyland. It was shipped back piece by piece. the Tower of Four Winds was not relocated with it. Instead Rolly Crump designed the now famous outdoor fascade that mimics the look of the rides interior and the famous landmarks from around the world.

The pieces were then reassembled and It’s a Small World opened in Disneyland on May 28, 1966.

The Grand Opening

For the grand opening 36 officials from around the world attended the opening along with 800 international reporters and 16 children from various countries. The 16 children added water from “seven seas and nine major lagoons” into the water of the ride. Then Walt Disney added water from the Rivers of America.

Walt Disney World

When Walt Disney World opened in 1971, the Florida version of It’s a Small World opened with it. In this version the ride queue was indoors as was a smaller clock facade.

Here’s a quick ride-through video

The ride is also have versions at Disneyland Paris, Tokyo Disneyland, and Hong Kong Disneyland.

The ride has seen a few refurbishments over the years as well. The largest one happened at Disneyland in 2008 and they improved the interior and added new plastic boats to replace the fiberglass ones. They also added 29 new Disney characters into the countries their stories came from. Hong Kong had already done this, so it was modeled after their version of the ride. Each character was imagined and designed with a Mary Blair feel so they meshed with the rest of the attraction.

Holiday Overlay at Disneyland

During the “holiday season” at Disneyland, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland, a holiday themed overlay is added to the attraction. Almost one million lights are added as well as special music and decorations.

This timeless attraction is a joy for all ages. When I was growing up we would drive to Walt Disney World and my siblings and I delighted in singing “It’s a Small World” over and over again. Until my parents would threaten to go home unless we stopped.

Every trip we make sure to stop and ride “It’s a Small World,” sometimes more than once.

What do you think? How do you feel about It’s a Small World? Comment and let us know.


France

Whether you trace France’s founding back to the division of Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire (Francia) into three parts in 843CE, or King Clovis’s accession to the throne in 481CE, it is undeniable that the country has existed for a long time. And while for centuries, the feudal system granted greater power to vassals than to the actual king (the Duke of Normandy’s conquest of England in 1066 is the perfect example), the nobles were still (nominally, at least) subjects of the French monarchy, laying the foundations for a state that has survived until now.

=Abbaye Saint-Ouen de Rouen, France


What does the future hold for Israel

While we are all considered God’s children and share in a Heavenly inheritance, Israel still stands at the forefront of future events.

While End-Time Prophecy is not straight forward, scholars and those who study Eschatology all attempt to explain what the Last Days will look like. Yet, scripture does lay out where these events are to take place.

There are five primary events that the Bible dictates will occur as the Second Coming of Christ approaches. While these points do not go into explicit detail, they do outline the gist of what is expected to occur:

  1. The Jews return to Israel – A mass drawing of Jews to the land of Israel.
  2. The Antichrist makes a pact with Israel A prominent political and spiritual figure becomes leader and promises peace in the region. As outlined through prophecy in Daniel, this period lasts seven years.
  3. The temple is rebuilt in Jerusalem As people return due to peace, the city and its temple are rebuilt in the capital.
  4. The Antichrist reneges on his pact Halfway through the period of peace, the Antichrist begins persecution on Israel that is worldwide.
  5. Israel finally recognizes Jesus as the Messiah The blinders are removed, and Jews who have previously rejected Jesus as the Messiah will see Him for who He truly was, and is.

Top Ten Countries With the Most Fascinating Cultures and Histories

1 China China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a sovereign state in East Asia. It is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.388 billion. It was established in 1949 by Chairman Mao, the president of the communist party. Its capital is Beijing. The major cities are Shanghai, . read more.

Despite the fact that most of them are communists, and the country itself is as well, it doesn’t make the culture stop being so gorgeous and beautiful. The landscapes are amazing, and my favorite part, has to be the kimonos. They are ABSOLUTELY BREATHTAKING to look at. The Chinese women look so beautiful in such golden trimmed clothing. The roofs, for shade are just something that you’d want to stay under forever. The scenery in the photographs of the women in kimonos, the lakes, ponds, mountains, and of course, but to mention The Great Wall of China. They’ve made this culture and country so amazingly outstanding, and I hope they know that. THIS deserves the number one spot.

China has an incredible amount of history, there's no way you could remember it all. Being Chinese, I celebrate the holidays and eat Chinese food and grew up on their stories. So maybe I'm a bit biased, but I don't think anyone could argue that its culture and history are extremely interesting.

Teaching Chinese abroad gives me a chance to see my culture from a different perspective, which is awesome. Trust me, there is much much more than just food, panda and Kung Fu to explore in China. And welcome to China to see and experience it yourself.

The most sophisticated, influential, diverse and unique culture and history to ever exist. Wish I could live amidst the Orient, the Far East, and experience the best of Chinese food, philosophy, poetry and everything else.

2 India India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. Its capital is New Delhi. Some other major cities are Mumbai, Chennai, and Ahemdabad. . read more.

Indian (or as I prefer, "Hindu", not in the religious but in the cultural sense) is a completely alien and unique culture. In ancient times, the inhabitants of this naturally-rich land had incredibly profound ideas proper of a very sophisticated individuals and their strong intellectual interest. Their attention to ethics made them to have the incredible modern insight that the slaughter of animals is unjust and cruel, forbidding it as early as the 7th century B.C. Wow! Among their astounding contributions to mathematics are early proofs and the positional numerals, and a surprising fascination and understanding of big numbers, along with their contribution to other sciences, all of them fundamental to our modern world. It produced the most perdurable superstitious practices as well, such as meditation and ayurveda. Unfortunately, like all the great ancient cultures, it suffered a crushing decadence in its way to actuality.

A big thanks to the Muslims who shaped Indian culture today. The food, the music (courtyard dances, Adab! ), The language (Urdu) and architecture. India as it's known wouldn't be so without the influence of the Muslims. Whether you accept that or not, I know it's hard as Modi is pushing an anti Muslim rhetoric all over the country. Good luck to the future of India, I hope they learn that prejudice ain't getting them nowhere. Muslims are part and parcel of India's history and present too.

India has the world's most beautiful architecture, the Taj Mahal, built out of love by Shah Jahan. A truly mesmerizing place that must be seen! The beautiful sunrise behind the incredible monument and the bright rays of the full moon that fall on it makes it a paradise. It is astonishing to see how clever Indians are to construct such an amazing monument that is symmetrical and adheres to mathematical formulas in every way!

India is the founder of all branches of studies, ranging from mathematics to musical theory. Even more interesting is its millions of cultures. Most of them are developed and sophisticated than entire countries, contrary to popular myth. You won't understand this in words. Just go to India.

3 Greece Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known since ancient times as Hellas is a country located in southeastern Europe.

Greece is a classic civilization we all still learn from to this day. From their beliefs, government system, and obviously their mathematicians and scientists, who've discovered some of the most important and basic concepts that we still build upon to this day. Their ancient history is absolutely fascinating!

Greek mythology is fascinating and entertaining!

Vibrant culture, fascinating history. Truly the most wonderful Western civilization.

In my opinion Greece is one of the most artistic countries.

4 Egypt Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Egypt was carried out by many civilizations, such as the Pharaonic, Byzantine, Islamic, Ayyubid, Fatimid, and Abbasid civilizations.

This culture has been alive for a long time and there is so much interest that can go into the Egyptian culture, plus there are so many ancient relics that have been found, I personal find this culture incredibly interesting.

Ancient Egypt is one of the most interesting subjects I've ever been taught in class. It has such a rich past, that's so full of mystery.

In Egypt alone has 1/3 amount of the monument in it.Moreover,you will find not only the most ancient civilization in the world,but also,Roman,Greek, Christian and Islamic.Beaches are all around where you can dive & swim all years around.The cruise in the Nile River crossing from Luxor & Aswan during winter is amazing to mix with history and the beauty of nature.Every year,when I visit Egypt,I discover more places especially Siwa Oasis,white and Black desert and camping under the stars is fascinating. Egypt suits different budget travelers. I did enjoy my stay at Four Seasons very luxurious and also the camping in a small tent in the desert.I love this country

5 Japan Japan is an island country in East Asia in the Pacific Ocean. It lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland (east of China, Korea, Russia) and stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and near Taiwan in the southwest. . read more.

The Island Nation has remained aloof from the world through centuries of separation and isolationist policies. With the rise of the modern technology and international commerce, this has create a unique mix of tradition you won't find anywhere else with the cutting edge of the modern. No country is as unique, or has a history so steeped in legend that at certain points of history, they become inseparable.

My all-time favorite holiday was to Japan. The layout, organization, hospitality, food and peacefulness is just fabulous. The locals are extremely friendly and polite, as well.

Japanese culture, along with many other asian cultures, is the oldest, most well developed culture on the planet. Everything from their weapons, to their clothes, even their language is extremely refined, graceful, and amazing.

One of my very favorite countries to visit - for their food, hospitality, their efficient public transportation system, bullet train, Japanese culture, lovely people, and their fashion!

6 Russia Russia, known as the "Russian Federation", was formed on Dec 25, 1991. It is located mainly in Asia. The capital and largest city is Moscow, followed by Saint Petersburg in terms of population. The country primarily speaks Russian, a Slavic language.

I am Chinese and I love Russian literature. They have very talented writers. I also love their beautiful eastern Orthodox cathedrals.

Their history in dance and other forms of art has always captivated my attention!

Soviet history is particularly interesting in my opinion. But the more obscure regions of Russia, like Kaliningrad or Tannu-Tuva, or the most interesting.

Russia in the 1900s was interesting

7 England England, previously the Kingdom of England, is a constituent country of the United Kingdom along with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. . read more.

The Greatest European Culture! Brits gave us biggest Empire, lots of modern technology, fashion, science, laws, music, film, artists etc.
Absolutely the greatist literature! Brits have never capitulate, also they burried 4 empires, and greatest modern country USA is also the descendants of Brits.
P.S. How this russian scumbag can be higher than England? Kremlin farm of trolls is now even on toptens?

England may be small it is full of culture. For example, the many stunning buildings from the tutor period, Victoria era

Ten? Come on! We all know about dear old England's fabulous history and culture. She is amazing!

England is amazing,it is full of fascinating history and beautiful architecture.This country is full of legends and myths about kings and queens.Although it has a gory past it is by far the most beautiful country in the world!

8 Italy Italy, in italian Repubblica Italiana, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. . read more.

Italy is a beautiful place, with a very unique culture. Not only is it pretty important today, but it was also the center of the Roman Empire and Republic. Florence, Rome, and Venice- Italy has some of the greatest cities in the world!

I will not pretend to know much about Italy, but it's a place I've always wanted to go to, just to get a peak at Venice!

Italian is one of the most beautiful languages of the world! And Florence is the true City of Love.

Country like no other in the world. Country which feel you better

9 France France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European part of France, called metropolitan France, extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to . read more.

France is a very cool place. I've always wanted to go, my best est friend named Emma got to go there when make a wish foundation helped. I'm not going to give you her whole life story but it was pretty cool, and helps me remember her.

Good food, patisseries, charcuteries, cheese, good wines, beautiful landscape (mountains, sea, countryside, tropical islands, amazonian forest, pittoresque towns, beautiful cities and Paris), music, festivals, fashion.

French culture is very sophisticated and if you really take time to study it, it is very interesting and broad in many areas pertaining to food, music, architcture, etc.

I've actually visited France, and I take French in school. The language is beautiful and it's a very romantic place!

10 Israel The State of Israel is a country in the Middle East and the only country with a Jewish majority in the world. Israel is a small country bordering Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt and its official languages are Hebrew and Arabic.

Isreal was founded in 14th of may 1948 after Hitler did what he did, and rich jews went around crying like babies and demanding that jews needed a compensation, and got promised by the British minister of foreign afairs ' Arthur Balfour' their own land in PALASTINE. At that time Palastine was attacked by british and french military, started taking over lands, killing childen and women, building camps, attracting more jews and expanding even more breaking almost every treaty made that said they wont expand anymore. Isreals history is only war and death. I guess you meant Palastine. you are either ignorant or afraid to write Palastine, I hope it's the second one though!

Israel is God's chosen people. God created the world and gave the Hebrew people that land that everyone is fighting over still. This to me and to many others is #1 because the Jewish people have escaped and been unnaturally persecuted by this world.
I love Israel! They have great fragrant oils, symbolic traditions, martial arts, and food. Israel is truly blessed.

Woah ok there. This ain't right. The fact actually still stands that falafel, the keffiyeh, dabke and basically everythaaang that's falsely listed as "Israeli culture" is Palestinian. You can't wipe their culture from history as well as their land because only Palestinians can rock the culture you egotistically call Israeli. Simples.

It is the home of Jerusalem, and even for people who are not religious, it's still amazing to learn about the the birthplace of the three major religions of the world.

11 Ireland Formed in 1916 after the Easter uprising, Ireland is a small country with a population of roughly 5 million.

If your Irish your amazing

12 Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic located in North America. The country is located between the U.S. and Central America, and is known for its Pacific and Gulf of Mexico beaches and its diverse landscape of mountains, deserts, and jungles.

Mexico home of the tomato, corn, chile peppers, avocado, cacao, vanilla, native to the region and given to the world. Has some of the best selling beer brands (Corona, Dos Equis, etc.), tequila, tacos, Dia de los Muertos, and had the first university in the Americas. Had some of the most advanced ancient civilizations, and a powerful city state as the Viceroyalty on New Spain overseeing vast global territories from Asia-Pacific to North America, the Caribbean, etc. Today it is the largest media and content producer in the Spanish speaking world, one of the largest producer of Spanish language pop/contemporary musicians and international artists and largest Spanish book publisher. 2nd largest economy in Latin America, most populous Spanish speaking country.

Mexico holds a lot of culture and tradition. The ancient buildings and towns are preserved with love. The people are super genuine and welcoming. Great food, music, views and energy. Mexico holds one of the seven wonders of the world, the pyramid.

Each part of the country has its own tradition, it's so rich culturally and the people there is so nice!

Ancient pyramids, colonial towns, and rich culture, oh and the FOOD!

13 Iran Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. The capital city is Teheran and the major city is also Tehran. The country's official language is Persian. . read more.

A country with thousands of years of continuous history, glorious architectural and musical traditions, and much to offer to foreigners. A country that has survived dozens of invaders and continues to exist as a single state today, from the first Elamite empire all the way to the modern Shahdom, then the Republic. It stands as unmatched today as it did in 510 because, 10 AD, 300 AD, 1000 AD, 1750, and many other time periods where it dominated the near east with a highly refined and trained military. It is one of the few countries to never be colonized and it is one of the most authentic and most understudied countries that Asia has to offer.

I sensed no racism when I went to Iran, and I am from Canada.
Every city is so different with different culture and beauty, from desert to mountains, to ski resort to caspian sea.
Religious freedom as well, and women have more rights than any other muslim countries.

I think that Iranians people are very strong and powerful and they have really great beliefs and cultures.They are real Muslim people not same ISIL!

I think Iranian People are so kind and hospitable.

14 United States The United States of America, or the U.S.A. for short, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, 48 of them are contiguous states. There are two other states, Alaska and Hawaii, which are north and south of the contiguous states, respectively. The United States declared its independence from the . read more.

Um, stop hating on the USA people just because most of you live here. We're like super more interesting than these other countries!

I suppose it could be interesting. But in America, it's culture/history is nothing compared to other countries.

Although it is young, USA has lots of history and has a mix of different cultures around the world.

Please people. leave politics and pompous attitudes out. Thank you!

15 Scotland Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is the most mountainous, and least densely populated country in the United Kingdom.

I'll admit, this is mostly because I am in love with the Scottish accent, but since seeing Brave, I have been super fascinated by the stories and mystical places the movie was based on.

Scotland used to be a monarchy, which is interesting. It also has interesting food, and the scenery is beautiful, the accent is also awesome

I voted this one. To make history, I hope Scotland becomes independent in the future!

I will honour my heritage

16 Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a sovereign state located in the Horn of Africa.

Ethiopia is the only African country that never been colonized. It beat Italy in battle of adwa. It has more than 85 languages and cultures. The people of Ethiopia are so warm and welcoming. Ethiopia is a very divers beautiful country.

Ethiopia is where it all began! It is the most fascinating and beautiful country in the world! Religion, civilization, farming etc have all their origins in this ancient wonderful country!

Kikikiki. it is the origin of human being and civilization. It is the only country never colonized. the warrior people and Christianity specially the Orthodox is originated from Ethiopia.

So true! such a beautiful country with beautiful people! proud to be Ethiopian!

17 Australia Australia, officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. Australia has a very warm climate and is very dry. The country's official language is English.

A country where saying "mate" is hip, and not only that but with a neat aboriginal culture, this place has it all! Not to mention a great art scene!

I strongly believe Australia is the most fascinating and interesting country/continent. In the universe

Australia is so close I can't wait for my and every other austalian to see it in the top 100

18 Spain Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the north African coast.

The other large European global empire besides Britain, that spanned the globe from Italy/Netherlands in Europe to Latin America (North and South America), Asia (Philippines, Formosa/Taiwan, etc.), and Africa (Morocco, etc.).
Gave the world terms like quixotic. Was the first European country to have a truly global reserve currency: "piece of 8", using the $ sign for its denomination, later adopted by Americans for the dollar.
Trade words like cargo/carga and embargo also originate from the Spanish Empire. Today Spanish is the 2nd most used/spoken/read language in the world through the spread of Spanish culture globally.

The most interesting and diverse country in Europe. Great food. Beautiful landscapes and people.The North has one of the most magnificent coast lines I have ever seen

Spain is great but I'm surprised Brazil isn't on the list. Would've voted for it

When asking about culture, Spain can give you whatever you want

19 Morocco Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the northwesternmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. . read more. 20 Wales Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Located on the island of Great Britain, it is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south.

Wales is a lovely country when I visited Swansea in Wales and when I went in to town everybody was so caring and helpful.

Rich in culture, language, eisteddfod, history and a beautiful place

Wales is beautiful and underrated.

Wales is an amazing place!

21 Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community.

Great people, great climate. did you know it was one of the few countries in Africa to have gotten independence from colonialists, and yes using homemade guns, bombs, arrows and so on, and they won! Wonderful history!

The 42 tribes, the different cultures, different languages and they still manage to run their country using two national languages English and Kiswahili. Natural resources, the people, everything about Kenya is just fascinating.

African cultures in general are always so awesome to learn about, but Kenya in particular is the country I have the most knowledge on, so it's the one I'm picking.

I call on all anthropologists in the world to come to Kenya. there is much to learn in Kenya. immense knowledge

22 Turkey Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest Georgia to the northeast Armenia, . read more.

Turkish people are amazing. They are so warm, helpful and welcoming people that I've ever seen. And just to you know, the capital of Turkey is "Ankara" not Istanbul. But you should go and see Istanbul because oh my god this city is a total dream. The history and the view. In my opinion, Turkey is the best.

A wandering from east to west throughout the history, adopting and changing the cultures they travel through and they arrive, a fantastic melting pot, yet a single and stark nation with a very rich culture with all that means. What can be more interested than that?

It's just amazing with too many historical places. Every people must go and see Sultan Ahmed

Too much history, great people, food, and music.

23 Georgia Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region. Located at the crossroads between Eastern Europe and Western Asia it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russian Federation, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The country's capital and a largest city . read more.

A mixture of warrior culture, nomadic culture and Hellenic culture. A crossroad between east west north and south!

And one of the oldest civilization still standing today!

Very old civilization, Grateful people, First woman monarch-king in the world, the birthplace of WINE, Long and interesting history, Shota Rustaveli- who wrote one of the best poem in the world, one from 14 unique alphabet in the world.

Long history great traditions

Amazing nature and people

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The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". [1]

Listed in descending order of lowest estimate.

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)

Political extermination campaigns

  1. ^ 'Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing. [2]
  2. ^ The Cambodian genocide is the commonly used term for the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[13] that forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labor, and starvation. [14][15][16] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered, [17] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place. [18] The Khmer Rouge Tribunal found that targeting of Vietnamese and Cham minorities constituted a genocide under the UN Convention. [19][20]
  3. ^ The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement, [26] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenousCircassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century. [27] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian PresidentBoris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide." [28] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognize the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people. [29] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognized as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognized as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. [30] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events. [30][31][32] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution [33] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  4. ^ The Armenian genocide, [43][44] carried out by the Young Turks, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, and mass starvation. It occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides some scholars consider these to form a broader genocide targeting all of the Christians in Anatolia. [45][46] Overall, about 2 million Christians were killed in Anatolia between 1894 and 1924, 40 percent of the original population. [47]
  5. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognized by the international community as a genocide.
  6. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000-1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  7. ^Dzungar genocide. The ManchuQianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Dzungar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Dzungar men and enslaving Dzungar women and children. [54] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers. [55][56] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Dzungars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered. [57][58][59] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people." [57][60] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor. [57] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars, [57] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence". [61]
  8. ^Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party. [62] Although Bengali Hindus were specifically targeted, the majority of victims were Muslim. [63]
  9. ^ The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  10. ^Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. German-Italian installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and anti-Ustashe Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt. [71]
  11. ^ During the First Congo War, troops of the Rwanda-backed Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL) attacked refugee camps in Eastern DRC, home to 527,000 and 718,000 Hutu refugees in South-Kivu and North-Kivu respectively. [74] Elements of the AFDL and, more so, of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) systematically shelled numerous camps and committed massacres with light weapons. These early attacks cost the lives of 6,800-8,000 refugees and forced the repatriation of 500,000 - 700,000 refugees back to Rwanda. [75] As survivors fled westward of the DRC, the AFDL units hunted them down and attacked their makeshift camps, killing thousands more. [76] These attacks and killings continued to intensify as refugees moved westward as far as 1,800 km away. The report of the United Nations Joint Commission reported 134 sites where such atrocities were committed. On 8 July 1997, the acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that "about 200,000 Hutu refugees could well have been massacred". [76]
  12. ^Porajmos (Romani pronunciation:IPA:[pʰoɽajˈmos] ), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates. [78][79]
  13. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention. [84] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.' [85] Historian Timothy Snyder called the Polish Operation genocidal: "It is hard not to see the Soviet "Polish Operation" of 1937-38 as genocidal, as more than 100,000 innocent people were killed on the spurious grounds that theirs was a disloyal ethnicity and since Stalin spoke of "Polish filth"." [86]Norman Naimark called Stalin's policy towards Poles in the 1930s "genocidal" [87] but did not consider the entire Great Purge genocidal since it targeted political opponents as well. [87] Polish writer and commentator, Dr Tomasz Sommer, also refers to the operation as a genocide. [88][89][90]
  14. ^Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица , Chechevitsa Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахарVaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet PremierJoseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands [94] [page needed] [95][96][97] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004. [98][99]
  15. ^ After Idi Amin Dada overthrow the regime of Milton Obote in 1971, he declared the Acholi and Lango tribes enemies, as Obote was a Lango and he saw the fact that they dominated the army as a threat. [104] In January 1972, Amin issued an order to the Ugandan army ordering that they assemble and kill all Acholi or Lango soldiers, and then commanded that all Acholi and Lango be rounded up and confined within army barracks, where they were either slaughtered by the soldiers or killed when the Ugandan air force bombed the barracks. [104]
  16. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21st century. [105] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations. [106]
  17. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program. [109][110] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. [111] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings. [112]
  18. ^Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  19. ^Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004. [118][119]
  20. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000 [120] implying a 40% decline
  21. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[121][122] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre. [123] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources, [124][125][126] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians. [127] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed) [128] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively, [129] and had caused 400,000 [130][131] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988), [132] with another 400,000 being internally displaced. [133][134][135] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia, [123] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia. [123]
  22. ^ On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognize Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament. [138] [disputed – discuss] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognized the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent. [139]South Korea recognized the Anfal as genocide on June 13 of 2013. [140]
  23. ^ Genocidal massacres and ethnic cleansing of ethnic Muslims and Croats by Yugoslav royalists and nationalists Chetniks across large areas of Occupied Yugoslavia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia) during World War II in Yugoslavia, on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia. [143][144][145][146] The Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, advocated for the cleansing of non-Serbs. Death toll by ethnicity is estimated to be between 18,000-32,000 Croats and between 29,000-33,000 Muslims. [147]
  24. ^ The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar halqınıñ sürgünligi Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars or, according to the other sources, 423,100 of them (89,2 % were women, children and elderly people) in 18–20 May 1944 one of the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. The deportation is recognized as a genocide by the countries of Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Canada respectively as well as various scholars. Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survival depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland". [148] Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay [149] and Pyotr Grigorenko[150] both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that "meet the standard of genocide." [151]
  25. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  26. ^Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population [161][162] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations. [163] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women. [164]
  27. ^ The California genocide[167][168] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856–1859, [169]general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination" [170] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  28. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony. [173] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[174][175][176][177]
  29. ^The Rohingya genocide[179][180][181][182] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group. [183] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression". [184] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  30. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localized, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[187] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[188] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War. [189] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims"). [190]
  31. ^ The 1804 Haiti massacre is considered to be a genocide by many scholars [195] , [196] as it was intended to destroy the Franco-Haitian population following the Haitian Revolution. The massacre was ordered by King Jean-Jacques Dessalines to remove the remainder of the white population from Haiti, and lasted from January to 22 April 1804. During the massacre, entire families were tortured and killed, and by the end of it, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent.
  32. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500. [198]
  33. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population. [202] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings [203] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
  1. ^"ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK: Genocide" (PDF) . Office of the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). United Nations. p. 1 . Retrieved 2019-01-02 .
  2. ^ For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see
  3. Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN978-1453203064 .
  4. ^
    • Riep, Leonhard (2020). "The Production of the Muselmann and the Singularity of Auschwitz: A Critique of Adriana Cavarero's Account of the "Auschwitz Event " " (PDF) . Hypatia. 35 (4): 635. doi: 10.1017/hyp.2020.41 . . between 5 and 6 million. According to Wolfgang Benz, at least 5.29 million up to around 6 million Jews of every age were murdered (Benz 1991, 17), whereas Raul Hilberg counts 5.1 million dead (Hilberg 2003, 1320–21)
    • Fischel, Jack R. (2020) [1999]. Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust (Third ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 10. ISBN978-1-5381-3016-2 . The number of Jews killed by the Germans in the Holocaust cannot be precisely calculated. Various historians, however, have provided estimates that range between 4,204,000 and 7,000,000, with the use of the round figure of six million Jews murdered as the best estimate to describe the immensity of the Nazi genocide. The Germans exterminated approximately 54 percent of the Jews within their reach.
    • Roth, John K. (2020). Sources of Holocaust Insight: Learning and Teaching about the Genocide. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 1n1. ISBN978-1-5326-7418-1 . . Raul Hilberg. 5.1 million. Israel Gutman and Robert Rozett. between 5-5 and 5.8 million. Wolfgang Benz. 6.2 million. The figures remain imprecise for several reasons, including.
    • Rummel, R.J. (2017) [1978]. "Democide in Totalitarian States". In Charny, Israel W. (ed.). The widening circle of genocide. Routledge. ISBN978-1-351-29406-5 . 4,204,400 to 4,575,400. the lowest count by any reputable study.
    • Oman, Nathan (2016). The dignity of commerce : markets and the moral foundations of contract law. University of Chicago Press. p. 203n64. ISBN9780226415529 . Bloxham. "Between 5,100,000 and 6,200,000.
    • Stier, Oren Baruch (2015). Holocaust Icons: Symbolizing the Shoah in History and Memory. Rutgers University Press. ISBN978-0-8135-7404-2 . . between five and six million. The late Raul Hilberg, for example, political scientist and widely acknowledged dean of Holocaust historiography, estimated 5.1 million Jewish victims, and that number did not change in the third edition of his monumental work. This indicates, one might presume, that he was satisfied with his rigorous investigation into this figure. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust offers a number of "more than" five million in its definition of the Holocaust.18 In 2007 the Division of the Senior Historian at the USHMM developed a series of estimates (dependent on means of counting) of between 5.65 million and 5.93 million, based on published accounts by Hilberg and others as well as on Soviet documents available only since 1991. No estimate has gone higher than six million.
  5. ^
    • Mawdsley, Evan (2015) [2005]. Thunder in the East: The Nazi-Soviet War 1941-1945. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 437n30. ISBN978-1-4725-1008-2 . . His total death toll for the European Holocaust was 5,100,00
    • Rubinstein, William D. (2014) [2004]. Genocide. Routledge. ISBN978-1-317-86995-5 . The number of Jews killed at the hands of the Nazis is invariably given, in shorthand terms at any rate, as 6 million, a figure which has, of course, entered the common consciousness and is endlessly repeated.122 It appears likely, however, that this number is too high by a considerable amount, as some careful Holocaust scholars such as Gerald Reitlinger and Raul Hilberg have pointed out. Reitlinger's early (1953) but carefully argued estimate of between 4,194,000 and 4,581,000 Jewish deaths is certainly the lowest ever offered by a serious historian Hilberg's more recent, but even more carefully argued estimate of 5,100,000. appears to be the next lowest among reputable scholars. it appears to this historian that Reitlinger's figures are probably most nearly correct, with the figure of Jewish victims of the Holocaust numbering about 4.7 million, although there is a wide margin of imprecision. Given that about 2.7 million Jews perished in the six major extermination camps, a figure of 6 million Jewish dead necessarily means that 3.3 million perished in other ways: this is very difficult to believe and is almost certainly an exaggeration. In demographic terms, there are two ways of approaching this question: to compare the number of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries in September 1939 with those alive in May 1945 (bearing in mind such other factors as the escape of refugees and battle deaths), and to provide an estimate of the number of Jews who perished by method of death in the extermination camps, at the hands of the Einsatzgruppen, etc. Both are fraught with difficulties, especially the former
    • Cesarani, David Kushner, Tony Reilly, Jo Richmond, Colin (2013) [2007]. Belsen in History and Memory. Routledge. ISBN978-1-135-25137-6 . . 5.29 million to over six million Jewish victims.
    • Hayes, Peter Roth, John K. (2012) [2010]. The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN978-0-19-165079-6 . Nevertheless, scholarly research, aided by recently opened archives and computerized data processing capacities, has put statistical estimates on a firmer footing than was possible in earlier decades. In previous stages of research, estimates of the Jewish victims ranged from 4,202,000—4,575,400 (Reitlinger 1961: 533-46), to 5.1 million (Hilberg 1961: 767), to 5,820,960 (Robinson 1971'. 889), to 6,093,000 (Lestchinsky 1948:60). At the end of the 1980s two different teams, one headed by a German scholar, another by an Israeli, meticulously reviewed all the available data and arrived at the following numbers for Jewish fatalities during the Holocaust: 5,596,000 to 5,860,149 (Gutman 1990: 1799) and 5.29 million to slightly more than 6 million (Benz 1991: 17). The new Yad Vashem museum, which opened in 2005, mentions 5,786,748 Jewish victims. One can be skeptical of such precision, but the most current research reliably calculates a total number of victims close to the now iconic figure Six Million
  6. ^
  7. Hoffmann, Peter (2011-07-11). Carl Goerdeler and the Jewish Question, 1933–1942. Cambridge University Press. p. xii. ISBN978-1-139-49944-6 . The SS' own statistic for Jews killed under German authority is 5.1 million
    • Bloxham, Donald (2009). The Final Solution: A Genocide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550333.003.0001. ISBN978-0-19-955034-0 . Between 5,100,000 and 6,200,000
    • Moore, Deborah D. (2008). American Jewish Identity Politics. University of Michigan Press. pp. 77-78 n 5. ISBN978-0-472-02464-3 . The exact number of Jews killed is not known and probably never will be known precisely. Raul Hilberg has placed the figure at 5.1 million Lucy Dawidowicz estimated it at 5,933,900 Martin Gilbert, at 5-75 million the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust states a minimum figure of 5,596,000 and a maximum of 5,860,000 and Wolfgang Benz sets the minimum at and a maximum of over six million. As previously unavailable archival materials in the former Soviet Union are made known to scholars, these figures are likely to be revised and, from early indications, probably upward. Some of these figures and an informed explanation of how they have been reached can be found in Franciszek Piper, "The Number of Victims," Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, ed. Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), 61—76.
    • McKale, Donald M. (2006) [2002]. Hitler's Shadow War: The Holocaust and World War II. Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 454. ISBN978-1-4616-3547-5 . According to the most reliable estimates, a minimum of 5,290,000 and maximum of slightly over 6 million Jews died.
    • Welch, Steven Robert (2001). A Survey of Interpretive Paradigms in Holocaust Studies and a Comment on the Dimensions of the Holocaust and "The Annihilation of Superfluous Eaters" : Nazi Plans for and Use of Famine in Eastern Europe. Yale Center for International and Area Studies. Genocide Studies Program. p. 12. In one of the first scholarly attempts to quantify the overall scope of the Holocaust, Gerald Reitlinger in 1953 gave a minimum figure of 4,194,200 and a maximum of 4,581,200 Jewish victims. Raul Hilberg in his standard work estimated the total at 5.1 million. The study arrives at a minimum figure of 5.29 million and a maximum of just over six million. These figures may now need to be revised (probably upward) on the basis of material from the archives of the former Soviet Union. Benz's book, however, should be considered as the most thorough and reliable study now available.
  8. ^
  9. "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". Holocaust Encyclopedia . Retrieved 2018-12-06 .
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  11. Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN978-0-8018-8358-3 .
  12. ^
  13. David Furber and Wendy Lower (2008). "Colonialism and genocide in Nazi-occupied Poland and Ukraine". In Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. p. 393. ISBN978-1-78238-214-0 .
  14. ^ Yehuda Bauer Comparison of Genocides. Studies in Comparative Genocide,1999 31–43.According to Polish sources, about three million ethnic Poles lost their lives during the war, or about 10 per cent of the Polish nation(. ) large numbers were murdered, or died as a result of direct German actions such as denyingfood or medical treatment to Poles, or incarceration in concentration camps. There is no way of estimating the exact proportions, but I believe it would be difficult to deny that wehave here a case of mass murder directed against Poles.German plans regarding Poles talked about denationalizing the Polish people, or in other words, making them into individuals who would no longer have any national identity(. )This is a case of genocide - a purposeful attempt toeliminate an ethnicity or a nation, accompanied by the murder oflarge numbers of the targeted group.''
  15. ^ ab
  16. "Polish Victims". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved 30 October 2020 . It is estimated that the Germans killed between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
  17. ^
  18. Cherry, Robert D. Orla-Bukowska, Annamaria (2007). Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN978-0-7425-4666-0 . . and the ruthlessness of German rule in Poland, where three million gentiles also perished and the punishment for hiding a Jew was execution of captured rescuers and their immediate families.
  19. ^
  20. Banki, Judith Herschcopf Pawlikowski, John (2001). Ethics in the Shadow of the Holocaust: Christian and Jewish Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 93. ISBN978-1-58051-109-4 . . Along with those three million Polish Jews, three million Polish civilians were murdered as well.
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  22. Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and International Justice. Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN978-0816073108 .
  23. ^The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University.
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  37. "Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam)". www.d.dccam.org.
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  55. "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". New York Times. May 21, 2011.
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  63. "Russians won't admit expulsion of Circassians was genocide — but Ukrainians should". Euromaiden Press. 2016-05-21.
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  65. Richmond, Walter (2013). The Circassian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. back cover. ISBN978-0-8135-6069-4 .
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  67. "Adsız Roman 1864-Çerkes Sürgünü ve Soykırımı". D&R (in Turkish) . Retrieved 2021-01-15 .
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  69. Genel Komite, HDP (2014). "The Circassian Genocide". www.hdp.org.tr (in Turkish) . Retrieved 2020-09-26 .
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  71. Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). Levine, Mark D Penny Roberts (eds.). The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide. Massacres in History. p. 154. The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million
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  73. "Adsız Roman 1864-Çerkes Sürgünü ve Soykırımı". D&R (in Turkish) . Retrieved 2021-01-15 .
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  75. "145th Anniversary of the Circassian Genocide and the Sochi Olympics Issue". Reuters. May 22, 2009. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012 . Retrieved November 28, 2009 .
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  77. Ellen Barry (May 20, 2011). "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". The New York Times.
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  79. Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide. p. 132. If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported.
  80. ^
  81. Robertson, Geoffrey (2016). "Armenia and the G-word: The Law and the Politics". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 69–83. ISBN978-1-137-56163-3 . Put another way – if these same events occurred today, there can be no doubt that prosecutions before the ICC of Talaat and other CUP officials for genocide, for persecution and for other crimes against humanity would succeed. Turkey would be held responsible for genocide and for persecution by the ICJ and would be required to make reparation.14 That Court would also hold Germany responsible for complicity with the genocide and persecution, since it had full knowledge of the massacres and deportations and decided not to use its power and influence over the Ottomans to stop them. But to the overarching legal question that troubles the international community today, namely whether the killings of Armenians in 1915 can properly be described as a genocide, the analysis in this chapter returns are sounding affirmative answer.
  82. ^
  83. Lattanzi, Flavia (2018). "The Armenian Massacres as the Murder of a Nation?". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later: Open Questions and Tentative Answers in International Law. Springer International Publishing. pp. 27–104. ISBN978-3-319-78169-3 . Starting from the claim by the Armenian community and the majority of historians that the 1915–1916 Armenian massacres and deportations constitute genocide as well as Turkey’s fierce opposition to such a qualification, this paper investigates the possibility of identifying those massacres and deportations as the destruction of a nation. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the facts and the required mental element, the author shows that a deliberate destruction, in a substantial part, of the Armenian Christian nation as such, took place in those years. To come to this conclusion, this paper borrows the very same determinants as those used in the case-law of the Military Tribunals in occupied Germany, the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in genocide cases.
  84. ^
  85. "The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): In Depth". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved 30 October 2020 . Although the term genocide was not coined until 1944, most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition. The CUP government systematically used an emergency military situation to effect a long-term population policy aimed at strengthening Muslim Turkish elements in Anatolia at the expense of the Christian population (primarily Armenians, but also Christian Assyrians). Ottoman, Armenian, US, British, French, German, and Austrian documents from the time reveal that the CUP leadership intentionally targeted the Armenian population of Anatolia.
  86. ^
  87. Morris, Benny Ze’evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN978-0-674-24008-7 .
  88. ^
  89. Ze’evi, Dror Morris, Benny (2020). "Response to Critique: The thirty-year genocide. Turkey's destruction of its Christian minorities, 1894–1924, by Benny Morris and Dror Ze'evi, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2019, 672 pp., USD$35.00 (hardcover), ISBN 9780674916456". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (4): 561–566. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1735600. S2CID216395523.
  90. ^ ab
  91. Ginsborg, Paul (2014). Family Politics: Domestic Life, Devastation and Survival, 1900-1950. Yale University Press. p. 100. ISBN9780300211054 .
  92. ^
  93. Adalian, Rouben Paul (2004). "Armenian Genocide". Washington, DC: Armenian National Institute . Retrieved August 13, 2016 .
  94. ^ abc
  95. McDoom, Omar Shahabudin (2020). "Contested Counting: Toward a Rigorous Estimate of the Death Toll in the Rwandan Genocide". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703252. S2CID214032255. If one examines the claims for the overall number killed, at the higher end lies the figure of 1,074,017 Rwandan dead. This number originates with the Rwandan government which conducted a nationwide census in July 2000, six years after the genocide. Toward the lower end lies an estimate from Human Rights Watch, one of the first organizations on the ground to investigate the genocide, of 507,000 Tutsi killed. I have estimated between 491,000 and 522,000 Tutsi, nearly two thirds of Rwanda’s pre-genocide Tutsi population, were killed between 6 April and 19 July 1994. I calculated this death toll by subtracting my estimate of between 278,000 and 309,000 Tutsi survivors from my estimate of a baseline Tutsi population of almost exactly 800,000, or 10.8% of the overall population, on the eve of the genocide. In comparison with estimates at the higher and lower ends, my estimate is significantly lower than the Government of Rwanda’s genocide census figure of 1,006,031 Tutsi killed. I believe this number is not credible.
  96. ^
  97. Guichaoua, André (2020). "Counting the Rwandan Victims of War and Genocide: Concluding Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 125–141. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703329. S2CID213471539.
  98. ^
  99. Sjöberg, Erik (2016). The Making of the Greek Genocide: Contested Memories of the Ottoman Greek Catastrophe. Berghahn Books. p. 234. ISBN978-1-78533-326-2 . Activists tend to inflate the overall total of Ottoman Greek deaths, from the cautious estimates between 300,000 to 700,000.
  100. ^
  101. Jones, Adam (September 13, 2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 166. ISBN9781136937972 . An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000 for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period.
  102. ^
  103. Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 95. ISBN978-0-231-13924-3 . Retrieved August 13, 2016 .
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  109. Perdue, Peter C. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. ISBN978-0674016842 .
  110. ^
  111. Wei Yuan. "聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty" (in Chinese). 4. 計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。除婦孺充賞外,至今惟來降受屯之厄鲁特若干戶,編設佐領昂吉,此外數千里間,無瓦剌一氊帳。 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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  113. Lattimore, Owen (1950). Pivot of Asia Sinkiang and the inner Asian frontiers of China and Russia . Little, Brown. p. 126.
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  115. Clarke, Michael Edmund (2004). In the Eye of Power (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Brisbane: Griffith University. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 29, 2012.
  116. ^
  117. Moses, A. Dirk (2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. ISBN978-1845454524 .
  118. ^
  119. "Part 5: Chapter 2, paragraph 33". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 1974. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  120. ^
  121. Jahan, Rounaq (2013). "Genocide in Bangladesh". In Totten, Samuel Parsons, William Spencer (eds.). Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN978-0-415-87191-4 .
  122. ^
  123. Dummett, Mark (2011-12-16). "How one newspaper report changed world history". BBC News . Retrieved 2020-08-04 .
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  125. "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 2010-03-25 . Retrieved April 16, 2018 .
  126. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
    Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website.
  127. ^ ab Cite error: The named reference prokid was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  128. ^
  129. R.J. Rummel (January 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN1560009276 . The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. . The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II).
  130. ^
  131. Travis, Hannibal (December 2006). Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I. Genocide Studies and Prevention. 1. pp. 327–371.
  132. ^
  133. "Assyrian Genocide". Lexicorient.
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  135. Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–10. ISBN978-1557534552 .
  136. ^ ab Excluding the Jews and Roma people sent to the German extermination camps.
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  142. Ezimet, Kisangani (2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies. Cambridge University Press. 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. JSTOR161648. S2CID154818651.
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  144. Reyntjens, Filip (2009). The Great African War : Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 (PDF) . New York: Cambridge University Press.
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  146. F. Emizet, Kisangani N. (July 2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. JSTOR161648. S2CID154818651.
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  148. Milton, Sybil (February 1992). "Nazi Policies towards Roma and Sinti 1933-1945". Journal of Gypsy Lore Society. 5. 2 (1): 1–18 . Retrieved August 12, 2016 .
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  150. "Holocaust Encyclopedia - Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939-1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) . Retrieved August 9, 2011 .
  151. ^
  152. König, Ulrich (1989). Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus (in German). Bochum: Brockmeyer. ISBN9783883397054 . The count of half a million Sinti and Roma murdered between 1939 and 1945 is too low to be tenable.
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  154. Niewyk, Donald L. Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 47. ISBN978-0-231-50590-1 . Retrieved 5 July 2016 .
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  156. "Germany unveils Roma Holocaust memorial: Memorial commemorates the 500,000 Roma victims of the Nazi Holocaust during World War II". aljazeera.com. October 25, 2012 . Retrieved August 12, 2016 .
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  158. Latham, Judith, ed. (1995). "First US Conference on Gypsies in the Holocaust". Current Affairs Bulletin (3–23928). Some estimates are higher, e.g. Sybil Milton: "Something between a half-million and a million-and-a-half Romanies and Sinti were murdered in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe between 1939 and 1945"
  159. ^
  160. Ellman, Michael (June 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies. 59 (4): 663–693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. JSTOR20451381. S2CID53655536. Lay summary (PDF) .
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  162. Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2003). Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Vintage Books. p. 229. ISBN1-4000-7678-1 .
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  164. Snyder, Timothy (2010-10-05). "The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact". The Guardian . Retrieved 2018-08-06 .
  165. ^ abGenocide: A World History, Norman M. Naimark
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  167. "Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (To Execute the Poles. Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)". Historyton. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011 . Retrieved April 28, 2011 .
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  169. "Sommer, Tomasz. Book description (Opis)" [Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union]. Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim w latach 1937–1938. Dokumenty z Centrali (in Polish). Księgarnia Prawnicza, Lublin . Retrieved 2011-04-28 .
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  171. "Konferencja "Rozstrzelać Polaków – Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim " " [Conference on Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, Warsaw] (in Polish). Instytut Globalizacji oraz Press Club Polska in cooperation with Memorial Society. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03 . Retrieved 2011-04-28 .
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  173. Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN978-0-521-19196-8 .
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  175. Joshua Rubenstein. "The Devils' Playground". The New York Times . Retrieved 2011-04-26 . Rubenstein is the Northeast regional director of Amnesty International USA and a co-editor of The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories.
    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order No. 00486. The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
  176. ^ Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 RevisitedPDF file page 686
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  178. Nekrich, Aleksandr. The Punished Peoples.
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  186. "UNPO: Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944". unpo.org.
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  188. "Press-Release: February 23, World Chechnya Day". Save Chechnya Campaign. Archived from the original on 2013-02-27 . Retrieved 2013-02-27 .
  189. ^ Wong, Tom K. (2015). Rights, Deportation, and Detention in the Age of Immigration Control. Stanford University Press. p. 68. 9780804794572. LCCN 2014038930. page 68
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  191. Chanturiya, Kazbek (23 February 2017). "After 73 years, the memory of Stalin's deportation of Chechens and Ingush still haunts the survivors". OC Media. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019 . Retrieved 27 November 2019 .
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  193. Wood, Tony. Chechnya: the Case for Independence. pp. 37–38.
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  195. "Soviet Transit, Camp, and Deportation Death Rates". hawaii.edu . Retrieved 2019-05-29 .
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  197. "Combat Genocide Association | Uganda 1971-1985".
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  201. Guha-Sapir, Debarati Degomme, Olivier (2005). "Darfur: counting the deaths (2). What are the trends?". Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. hdl: 2078.1/179717 .
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  203. Reeves, Eric (2006-04-28). "Quantifying Genocide in Darfur". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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  205. Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies. CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
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  207. "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor". Yale.edu.
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  209. "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!" (PDF) .
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  211. "Chega! The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
  212. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    *This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
  213. "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report" (PDF) .
  214. "The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on 2012-05-13.
  215. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
  216. "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". cavr-timorleste.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012 . Retrieved April 16, 2018 .
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  218. White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century: C. Burundi (1972–73, primarily Hutu killed by Tutsi) 120,000".
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  221. ^ ab
  222. Krueger, Robert Krueger, Kathleen Tobin (2007). From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi : Our Embassy Years During Genocide (PDF). University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292714861 (PDF) . p. 29.
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  224. Penketh, Anne (2004-07-07). "Extermination of the pygmies". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2018-12-21 . Retrieved 2018-12-21 .
  225. ^Penketh 2004.
  226. ^ abc "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see:
  227. Raja Seshadri (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 21 July 2012 .
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  268. ^GENOCIDE IN IRAQ Human Rights Watch, 1993
  269. ^The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign PBS Frontline
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  271. Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. London New York: Frank Cass. p. 155. ISBN978-0-7146-5625-0 .
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  275. Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks, 1941-1943. Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN0197263801 .
  276. ^Tomasevich 2001, p. 379, 747.
  277. ^ abc
  278. Vladimir Geiger (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  279. ^Legters 1992, p. 104.
  280. ^Fisher 2014, p. 150.
  281. ^Allworth 1998, p. 216.
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  287. Allworth, Edward (1998). The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland: Studies and Documents. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 6. ISBN9780822319948 . LCCN97019110. OCLC610947243.
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  289. page, 34. " " Punished Peoples" of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin's Deportations" (PDF) . Human Rights Watch 1991. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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  291. Nuhn, Walter (1989). Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN978-3-7637-5852-4 .
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  293. "Revised and Updated Report on thè Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". Whitaker Report. United Nations. According to the 1985 United Nations' Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907
  294. ^Moses 2008, p. 296.
  295. Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy (2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 142. ISBN978-0313362569 .
  296. Schaller, Dominik J. (2008). From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. NY: Berghahn Books. p. 296. ISBN978-1-8454-5452-4 .
  297. Friedrichsmeyer, Sara L. Lennox, Sara Zantop, Susanne M. (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN978-0472096824 .
    Nuhn 1989.
  298. Hoffmann, Anette (2007). Marie-Aude Baronian Stephan Besser Yolande Jansen (eds.). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN978-90-420-2129-7 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  299. ^
  300. "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC. August 14, 2004 . Retrieved 20 February 2016 .
  301. ^
  302. "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004 . Retrieved 20 February 2016 .
  303. ^
  304. "UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985". Prevent Genocide International. paragraphs 14 to 24, pages 5 to 10
  305. ^
  306. "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  307. ^
  308. "Guatemala Memory of Silence" (PDF) . Commission for Historical Clarification Conclusions and Recommendations. Guatemala City. 1999 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  309. ^CEH 1999, p. 20.
  310. ^CEH 1999, p. 23.
  311. ^ Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and
  312. "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  313. ^ Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  314. ^ ab Benjamin Madley
    An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe,1846–1873
  315. ^ abc
  316. "California Genocide". PBS. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08 . Retrieved 2007-01-08 .
  317. ^
  318. Ben Kiernan. "8". Blood and Soil A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Genocide in the United States. pp. 310–363.
  319. ^
  320. Heizer (1993). Crescent City Herald. pp. 35–36. quoted in Sacramento newspaper
  321. ^ Only the range of deaths caused by massacred
  322. ^ The total population decline of the period overall
  323. ^Ørsted-Jensen (2011).
  324. ^
  325. Ray Gibbons. "The Partial Case for Queensland Genocide". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  326. ^
  327. Hannah Baldry Alisa McKeon Scott McDougal. "Queensland's Frontier Killing Times – Facing Up to Genocide". QUT Law Review. 15 (1): 92–113. ISSN2201-7275.
  328. ^
  329. Alison Palmer (1998). "Colonial and modern genocide: explanations and categories". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 21: 89–115. doi:10.1080/014198798330115.
  330. ^ abc
  331. Tatz, Colin (2006). Roger Maaka Chris Andersen (eds.). "Confronting Australian Genocide". The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Canadian Scholars Press. 25: 16–36. ISBN978-1551303000 . PMID19514155.
  332. ^ ab
  333. Evans, Raymond Ørsted–Jensen, Robert (2014-07-09). "I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier". AHA (paper). University of Queensland: Social Science Research Network. SSRN2467836 .
  334. ^
  335. R.C. (23 May 2018). "The Rohingya crisis bears all the hallmarks of a genocide". The Economist . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  336. ^
  337. Camilla Siazon (8 May 2018). "The Rohingya Crisis and the Meaning of Genocide". Council on Foreign Relations . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  338. ^
  339. "UN official says Rohingya crisis has 'hallmarks of genocide ' ". Associated Press. Associated Press. 1 February 2018 . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  340. ^
  341. Azeem Ibrahim (23 October 2017). "There's only one conclusion on the Rohingya in Myanmar: It's genocide". Cable News Network . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  342. ^
  343. BBC (24 April 2018). "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  344. ^
  345. BenarNews (23 August 2017). "Southeast Asia's Newest Rebel Group Calls Bangladesh 'Great Neighbor ' ". Radio Free Asia . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
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  347. James Bennett (14 December 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  348. ^
  349. Laignee Barron (8 March 2018). "More Than 43,000 Rohingya Parents May Be Missing. Experts Fear They Are Dead". Time . Retrieved 25 August 2018 .
  350. ^
  351. Irwin, Rachel (13 December 2012). "Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir". Institute for War and Peace Reporting . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  352. ^
  353. Gutman, Roy (1993). A Witness to Genocide. Lisa Drew Books. ISBN978-0020329954 .
  354. ^
  355. Thackrah, John Richard (2008). Routledge Companion to Military Conflict since 1945. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–82. ISBN978-0-203-01470-7 .
  356. ^
  357. "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 31 March 2010 . Retrieved 13 August 2016 .
  358. ^ Most recent estimate from the ICMP for Srebrenica alone:
  359. "ICMP and the Srebrenica Genocide" (PDF) . International Commission on Missing Persons. July 2020 . Retrieved 30 October 2020 .
  360. ^
  361. Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W. Emmert, Thomas A. (eds.). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–40. ISBN978-1-55753-617-4 . Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  362. ^ The two figures consider all Bosniak civilians killed during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For the second figure, see:
  363. Ball, Patrick Tabeau, Ewa Verwimp, Philip (17 June 2007). "The Bosnian Book of Dead: Assessment of the Database" (PDF) . Falmer: The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex . Retrieved 12 August 2016 .
  364. ^
  365. Zwierzchowski, Jan Tabeau, Ewa (1 February 2010). "The 1992–95 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Census-Based Multiple System Estimation of Casualties' Undercount" (PDF) . Conference Paper for the International Research Workshop on 'The Global Costs of Conflict' . The Households in Conflict Network (HiCN) and The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) 1–2 February 2010, Berlin: 15.
  366. ^ Girard, "Caribbean genocide: racial war in Haiti, 1802–4," p. .
  367. ^ Robins, Nicholas A. and Adam Jones. "Introduction: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice." In: Robins, Nicholas A. and Adam Jones (editors). Genocides by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice. Indiana University Press, 2009. 0253220777, 9780253220776. p. 3: "The Great Rebellion and the Haitian slave uprising are two examples of what we refer to as "subaltern genocide": cases in which subaltern actors—those objectively oppressed and disempowered—adopt genocidal strategies to vanquish their[. ]" -- Also stated in Jones, Adam. Chapter 11: "Subaltern genocide: Genocides by the oppressed." In: The Scourge of Genocide: Essays and Reflections. Routledge, June 26, 2013. 1135047154, 9781135047153. p. 169.
  368. ^ abGirard 2011, pp. 319–322.
  369. ^ ab
  370. Chapman, Anne (2010). European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, Before and After Darwin (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-052151379-1 .
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  372. Adhikari, Mohamed Carmichael, Cathie Jones, Adam Kapila, Shruti Naimark, Norman Weitz, Eric D. (2018). "Genocide and Global and/or World History: Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 20 (1): 134–153. doi:10.1080/14623528.2017.1363476. S2CID80081680.
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  374. Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos (in German). 79 (4/6): 645–7.
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  376. Ray, Leslie (2007). Language of the Land: The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. Copenhagen: IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). p. 95. ISBN978-879156337-9 .
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  392. King, Michael (2011). The Silence Beyond. Penguin. p. 190. ISBN978-1459623019 .
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  400. Reynolds, Henry (2004). A. Dirk Moses (ed.). Genocide in Tasmania?. Genocide and settler society:frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian History. Berghan Books. p. 128.
  401. ^Clements 2014, p. 4.
  402. ^ abClements 2013, pp. 329–331

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "OtherSources" is not used in the content (see the help page).


Modern human beings, called Homo sapiens ('wise man') have lived for about 250,000 years. The first Homo sapiens lived at the same time as other species of human. These included Homo erectus ('standing man') and Homo neanderthalensis ('man from Neanderthal'). They were a little bit different from modern humans. The theory of human evolution says that modern humans, Neanderthals, and Homo erectus slowly developed from other earlier species of human-like creatures. Biologists believe that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and spread from there to all other parts of the world, replacing Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and Homo erectus in Asia.

Homo neanderthalensis, generally called Neanderthal Man, was discovered when the cranium of a skull was found in the Neanderthal Valley in 1856. It was different from a modern human skull so scientists believed it was from a new species. [1] Entire Neanderthal skeletons have been found in other places since then. [2] Neanderthals existed before modern humans, and knew how to use tools and fire. When ancient stone tools are found, their style often shows whether they were made by Homo sapiens or Neanderthals (see Palaeolithic). By the end of the Stone Age, it is believed that Homo sapiens were the only type of humans left.

Climate is different from one part of the world to another. Some areas are hot all year, and some are cold. Some areas are dry all year, and others are wet. Most areas have climates that are warm or hot in the summer and cool or cold in the winter. Most parts of the world get rain at some times of the year and not others. Some parts of the world have oceanic climates and others have alpine climates. These differences cause people to live differently.

Climate affects what food can grow in a certain place. This affects what food people eat. If one food is easier to grow, it often becomes a staple food. Staples foods are foods that people eat more of than other foods. Staple foods are usually grains or vegetables because they are easy to grow. Wheat, maize, millet, rice, oats, rye, potatoes, yams, breadfruit and beans are examples of different staple foods from around the world. Climate also affects the types of animals that can live in any area, which affect the types of meats that are available to eat.

Climate also affects the buildings that people make, the clothes that they wear and the way that they travel.

Climate change Edit

The climate on earth has not stayed the same through human history. There are long periods of time when it is generally warmer, and there are long periods of time when it is generally colder. When it is generally colder, there is more ice on the poles of the planet. A cold period is called an ice age. There have been many ice ages in the history of the earth. Two have affected humans.

From 70,000 to around 10,000 years ago there was a big ice age which affected humans and the way that they lived. Between 1600 AD and 1900 AD there was a period called the Little Ice Age when the climate was a little bit colder than usual. [3]

The word "Prehistory" means "before history". It is used for the long period of time before humans began to write about their lives. [4] This time is divided into two main ages: the Paleolithic Age (or Early Stone Age) and the Neolithic Age (or late Stone Age). The two ages did not start and end at the same time everywhere. A place moved from one age to another depending on when people changed their technology.

The end of prehistory also varies from one place to another. It depends on the date when written documents of a civilization can be found. In Egypt the first written documents date from around 3200 BC. In Australia the first written records date from 1788 and in New Guinea from about 1900.

In the Paleolithic era, there were many different human species. According to current research, only the modern human Homo sapiens reached the Neolithic era.

Paleolithic Era Edit

The Paleolithic Era is by far the longest age of humanity's time, about 99% of human history. [5] The Paleolithic Age started about 2.6 million years ago and ended around 10,000 BC. [5] The age began when hominids (early humans) started to use stones as tools for bashing, cutting and scraping. The age ended when humans began to plant crops and have other types of agriculture. In some areas, such as Western Europe, the way that people lived was affected by the Ice age. In these places, people moved towards agriculture quicker than in warmer places where there was always lots of food to gather. Their culture is sometimes called the Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age).

During the Paleolithic Era humans grouped together in small bands. They lived by gathering plants and hunting wild animals. [6] This way of living is called a "hunter-gatherer society". People hunted small burrowing animals like rabbits, as well as birds and herds of animals like deer and cattle. They also gathered plants to eat, including grains. Grain often grows on grasslands where herds of grass-eating animals are found. People also gathered root vegetables, green vegetables, beans, fruit, seeds, berries, nuts, eggs, insects and small reptiles.

Many Paleolithic bands were nomadic. They moved from place to place as the weather changed. They followed herds of animals that they hunted from their winter feeding places to their summer feeding places. If there was a drought,flood, or some other disaster, the herds and the people might haved moved a long distance, looking for food. During the "Ice Age" a lot of the water on Earth turned to ice. This made sea much lower than it is now. People were able to walk through Beringia from Siberia to Alaska. Bands of Homo sapiens ( another word for people) travelled to that area from Asia. At that time there were rich grasslands with many large animals that are now extinct. It is believed that many groups of people travelled there over a long time and later spread to other parts of America, as the weather changed. [7]

Paleolithic people used stone tools. Sometimes a stone tool was just a rock. It might have been useful for smashing a shell or an animal's skull, or for grinding grain on another rock. Other tools were made by breaking rocks to make a sharp edge. The next development in stone tool making was to chip all the edges of a rock so that it made a pointed shape, useful for a spearhead, or arrow tip. Some stone tools are carefully "flaked" at the edges to make them sharp, and symmetrically shaped. Paleolithic people also used tools of wood and bone. They probably also used leather and vegetable fibers but these have not lasted from that time. Paleolithic people also knew how to make fire which they used for warmth and cooking.


Former Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia dissolved in the early 1990s into five independent countries:

  • June 25, 1991: Croatia and Slovenia
  • September 8, 1991: Macedonia (officially The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) declared independence on this date, but wasn't recognized by the United Nations until 1993 and the United States and Russia until February of 1994.
  • February 29, 1992: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • April 17, 1992: Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

It's a Small World: 9 Little-Known Facts

It's a ride every Disney fan has ridden and a song that's impossible to forget.

'It's a Small World' Turns 50

March 21, 2014— -- It will soon be the 50th anniversary of a ride every Disney fan has ridden and a song that's impossible to forget.

And on April 10, that milestone year will be celebrated when hundreds of voices from Disneyland Resort in California, Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, Tokyo Disney Resort in Japan, Disneyland Paris in France and Hong Kong Disneyland Resort will sing the unforgettable theme song of the "happiest cruise that ever sailed the seven seas."

Because, it's a small world after all.

Fans from around the world can sing-along too. Starting today, anyone can record videos of themselves singing the classic song and create virtual "it's a small world" dolls at SmallWorld50.com. The project will benefit UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), which provides health care and immunizations, clean water and sanitation, nutrition, education, emergency relief and more to children around the world.

9 Things You Don't Know About it's a small world:

They never thought it would last. It's a small world was created for the 1964 New York World's Fair. The composer of the song, Oscar-winner Richard Sherman, said: "We thought, 'Well, when the World's Fair is over, that will be the end of it. For two years, they'll have this thing.' We never dreamed it would have the 'legs' as they call it, the distance that it's run."

Money was no object for the dolls' costumes. "I asked Walt [Disney] how much I could spend," said Alice Davis, Disney Legend and Imagineering Costume Designer for 'it's a small world,' "and he looked at me and cocked his eyebrow, like he did sometimes, and said, 'We don't think like that here. I want you to do whatever it takes to make these look like dolls every woman in the world would want to have."'

There's a reason you can't get it out of your head. During a 16-hour operating day in the parks, the "it's a small world" song is played, on average, 1,200 times.

Can you spot the sticker at the Disneyland attractions? After two hit seasons at the New York World's Fair in 1964 and '65, "it's a small world" moved to Disneyland in California, where it was expanded and then reopened as a major attraction in 1966. Shipping stickers with 1965 dates can still be found on the back of some set pieces.

Sad clown got a makeover. When the Walt Disney World attraction got refurbished in 2004-2005 the clown piloting a hot air balloon in the "it's a small world" finale changed his demeanor. He now smiles and carries a balloon in his hand. Formerly, he frowned and carried a sign saying, "Help."

Location, location, location. The "it's a small world" attraction at Tokyo Disneyland features the largest Japan section of any version.

It gets dressed up for the holidays. Disneyland in California, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland all have a holiday version of the attraction.

The original song concept didn't work out so well. Originally, the attraction featured the dolls singing the national anthems of the various countries. The result was, in Richard Sherman's words, "a cacophony." The Sherman Brothers composed a simple song that could be translated into many languages and sung consistently throughout the attraction.

It really is a small world after all. With the 1992 opening of "it's a small world" at Disneyland Paris, the cheerful anthem now is being played somewhere on the planet every hour of the day.


Watch the video: Top 10 μεγαλύτερες χώρες του κόσμου σε πληθυσμό 1900-2020 - Graph in 2 #17 (July 2022).


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  2. Pol

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  3. Zulujin

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