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October 18, 2013 Day 272 of the Fifth Year - History

October 18, 2013 Day 272 of the Fifth Year - History


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President Barack Obama works at the Resolute Desk in the Oval Office, Oct. 18, 2013

11:15AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

12:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with senior advisors
Oval Office

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT makes a personnel announcement
Rose Garden


Add your name and become a signer of one of America's Founding Documents! Virtually "sign" the Constitution on our website.

Each year, new United States naturalized citizens take the oath of allegiance in the National Archives Rotunda in Washington, DC, just steps away from the Charters of Freedom. Read about the 2017 and 2018 ceremonies.

Teaching and Learning Resources

DocsTeach Access primary sources and online teaching activities related to the U.S. Constitution and how it forms the basis for our Government's actions on DocsTeach, the online tool for teaching with documents from the National Archives.

Exploring the United States Constitution - Find the special Constitution eBook and other resources, available for download with iBooks and on iTunesU, or as a PDF.

Online resources for teaching about the Constitution

Pieces from the publication Social Education (written by NARA staff as a part of our partnership with the National Council for the Social Studies)

  • General Constitution: “Teaching the Constitution…Virtually” (September 2019)
  • First Amendment: “Upholding Student Rights in the 20th Century: An Examination of Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District” (March/April 2018)
  • Fifth Amendment: “Pleading the Fifth: Lillian Hellman and the HUAC Investigation of Hollywood” (November/December 2016)
  • https://www.socialstudies.org/social-education/80/6/pleading-fifth-lillian-hellman-and-huac-investigation-hollywood
  • Eighth Amendment: “Locked Up: Exploring Prisoner Rights and the Eighth Amendment” (March/April 2016)
  • 19th Amendment: “Forging a Path to the 19th Amendment: Understanding Women’s Suffrage” (October 2019)

Video Resources

The U.S. Constitution at the National Archives
Go inside the vaults to see rarely displayed documents relating to the formation of the Constitution, including George Washington’s printed copy with his annotations, the final printed text, and Pennsylvania’s ratified copy.

"Amending America" Exhibit
Take a virtual tour of our "Amending America" exhibit, which highlights the remarkably American story of how we have amended, or attempted to amend, the Constitution in order to form a nation that more closely mirrors our ideals.

"Amending America" How Do We Amend?
This animated short, made for the “Amending America” exhibit, describes how an amendment can be proposed and ratified. It also illustrates how our Founders included Article V to make it possible to amend our Constitution.


Wisdom of Crowds Wide Receiver Edition: Results

Adam Steele is back to provide a recap for his Wisdom of Crowds project, and we thank him for it.

After two weeks of polling, we received 20 legal ballots and lots of great discussion. Thank you to everyone who participated! Let’s get straight to the results:

In this table you’ll see total points for each WR, average points per ballot, and the specific points distribution by each voter. I only ranked players who were listed on more than one ballot. Now you can compare your votes to others’ side by side!

To the surprise of absolutely no one, Jerry Rice is the runway winner for Greatest Wide Receiver of All-Time. He’s probably the only player in NFL history at any position that has no holes in his resume. Rice had a dominant peak, absurd longevity, holds every postseason record, and gave 100% effort at all times. He may very well be the greatest football player ever, period.

Going into this, I wasn’t sure how voters would handle Don Huston, Randy Moss, and Terrell Owens. The former dominated his era like no other and revolutionized the WR position, but older players tend to do worse in WOC exercises for a number of reasons. The latter two also dominated their era but were famous for poor effort and being cancerous to their locker room. In the end, Hutson edged out Moss for 2 nd place while Owens only came in 5 th behind Lance Alworth. I’m quite surprised that Alworth beat out Owens, but it shows that FP readers are not slaves to consensus opinion.

The most polarizing WR was Antonio Brown, another player known for his antics as much as his play. Brown’s talent and production are undeniable, but he’s also a selfish lunatic who undermines the culture of every team he plays for (or doesn’t play for in the Raiders’ case). As a result, his votes were all over the place. Some ballots had Brown near the top, some in the middle, some at the bottom, and a few left him off entirely.

Modern freak athlete receivers Calvin Johnson and Julio Jones also proved to be quite polarizing. In Johnson’s case, much of the uncertainty likely stems from his early retirement. But some fans undoubtedly knock Megatron for padding his stats in a pass happy offense while playing nine games a year indoors. Jones suffers from the same detractors, though his Falcons had more team success than Johnson’s Lions which may legitimize his stats in the eyes of some.

As has been the case with every WOC, older players had their votes scattered all over the map. Crazy Legs Hirsch was rated highly by some while left off half of the ballots entirely. Was Hirsch a one season wonder? Was he beating up on inferior competition? Pete Pihos and Fred Biletnikoff also saw a variety of scores, likely because voters struggle to put such players in proper context or don’t know their names at all.

What stands out to you in these results? Do you think FP’s collective opinion got it right? Please share your thoughts in the comments!


Tiger Woods' stats at the Masters

  • Wins: 5
  • Top-5 finishes: 12
  • Top-10 finishes: 14
  • Missed cuts: 1
  • Best round: 7-under 65 (in 1997 and in 2005)
  • Worst round: 77 (1995)
  • Best tournament score: 18-under 270 (1997)
  • Worst tournament score after making cut: 5-over 293 (1995, 2012)

Massive Secondary Postpartum Hemorrhage with Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Cesarean Section

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but serious complication of cesarean section. If inadequately treated, it can lead to life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old woman who developed secondary postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine artery pseudoaneurysm and cesarean scar dehiscence after cesarean section. Angiographic embolization is a safe and effective procedure for treating postpartum hemorrhage resulting from pseudoaneurysm in hemodynamically stable patients. However, uterine artery ligation may be the surgical procedure of choice for hemodynamically unstable patients when fertility preservation is desired.

1. Introduction

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare but life-threatening complication of uterine surgery, especially in cesarean section (C/S) [1, 2]. This condition may result in secondary postpartum hemorrhage, which is defined as hemorrhage that occurs between 24 hours and 6–12 weeks postpartum [3]. Although a diagnosis of retained gestational products or endometritis should be considered initially, a diagnosis of UAP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD) should be considered when a patient presents with massive uterine bleeding without any associated symptoms such as fever and tenderness or subinvolution of the uterus. Hematoma formation involving the uterine artery is the main suggested mechanism associated with UAP. UAP can be differentiated from true aneurysm by performing a histopathological examination. Turbulent blood flow on color Doppler sonography may be the single diagnostic finding in asymptomatic patients, and the absence of a 3-layer arterial wall lining is the most important histopathological finding that distinguishes UAP from true aneurysm [4, 5]. Proper treatment requires an accurate diagnosis, which is generally based on the results of color Doppler sonography and confirmed by performing angiography. Arterial embolization should be considered as the treatment of choice for stable patients [6].

Herein, we report a case representing coexistence of UAP and CSD with the presence of massive uterine bleeding managed by a fertility preserving surgical approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case “coexistence of UAP and CSD as the cause of delayed postpartum hemorrhage” which was treated by surgical procedure.

2. Case Report

A 28-year-old patient (gravida 2 para 2) who delivered a 3580 g male fetus by cesarean section a month ago was referred to our clinic with postpartum hemorrhage. The course of 2 previous C/S was unremarkable. She was discharged from the hospital on the second day postpartum, and on the third week postpartum, she was admitted to the hospital with complaint of severe vaginal bleeding.

Initial evaluation of the patient revealed tachycardia (120 bpm) and paleness. The laboratory results were as follows: Hct, 25% Hb, 8 g/dL. The patient was immediately transfused with 1 U of packed red blood cells and 2 U of fresh frozen plasma. A lesion, 20 mm in diameter, consistent with fluid collection, was detected on gray scale sonography (Figure 1), and revision curettage was performed with a Karman cannula after the patient was diagnosed with retained placenta. The patient presented with recurrent bleeding after a week and was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment.


(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)

Systemic evaluation results and vital signs were within normal limits. Gynecological examination revealed normal sized uterus and adnexa without tenderness and vaginal bleeding. Biochemical analyses were unremarkable and hematological findings were as follows: Hct, 30% Hb, 10 g/dL WBC, 10000/dL. Gray scale and color Doppler sonography were performed transvaginally and initially showed a normal postpartum uterus and bilateral adnexa. However, careful examination suggested a cystic mass on the right lateral isthmic region with a size of 22 × 16 mm. Color flow and spectral Doppler imaging of the cystic mass revealed marked aliasing and bidirectional flow representing systolic and diastolic blood flow (Figure 2). Three-dimensional (3D) sonography or 3D power Doppler mode showed the same cystic mass with a suspicion of irregular incisional track and the highly vascularized cystic mass anastomosed to the uterine vessels (Figure 3). Pseudoaneurysm was suspected and blood transfusion preparation was initiated for possible emergency surgical intervention. A uterine artery embolization procedure was scheduled the day after the diagnosis. However, on the day of the intervention, the patient experienced excessive vaginal bleeding (approximately 1500 mL) and underwent emergency laparotomy.


(a)
(b)
(a)
(b) A cystic mass was observed on the right lateral isthmic region with a size of 22 × 16 mm on gray scale and 3D sonography. Color flow and spectral Doppler imaging of the cystic mass revealed marked aliasing and bidirectional flow representing systolic and diastolic blood flow.

(a)
(b)
(a)
(b) Three-dimensional (3D) sonography or 3D power Doppler mode showed the same cystic mass with a suspicion of irregular incisional track and the highly vascularized cystic mass anastomosed to the uterine vessels.

Abdominal exploration revealed a uterus of normal size and normal adnexa without intra-abdominal bleeding. After the peritoneum of the urinary bladder was detached, the CSD was inspected as both sides of incision were away from each other and the source of high-flow bleeding was found to be the aneurysmatic formation associated with the right uterine artery, within the uterine cavity (Figure 4). The aneurysmatic vessel was resected and retained for pathological evaluation. Subsequently, right uterine artery ligation was performed to preserve fertility. Upon cessation of the bleeding, the lower uterine segment was sutured after the incision was debrided. The patient was transfused with 2 U of packed red blood cells during the perioperative period. On the first postoperative day, hemogram data showed Hct of 23% and Hb of 7.8 g/dL, leading to the transfusion of 2 U of packed red blood cells. Follow-up sonography was unremarkable, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day.


A CSD was inspected and the source of high-flow bleeding was found to be the aneurysmatic formation associated with the right uterine artery, within the uterine cavity.

3. Discussion

Postpartum hemorrhage remains one of the major causes of maternal mortality. It occurs in fewer than 5% of all deliveries and accounts for approximately 15% of all maternal deaths [7]. Early or primary postpartum hemorrhage occurs within the first 24 hours postpartum. The primary causes are uterine atony (

70% of cases), retained placental fragments, endometritis, genital laceration, uterine inversion or rupture, and coagulation disorders [8]. Secondary postpartum hemorrhage is defined as excessive bleeding starting any time from 24 hours after delivery up to 6–12 weeks postpartum and most commonly occurs between 8 and 14 days postpartum [3]. Common causes include retained products of conception, subinvolution of the placental bed, and endometritis [9]. Rare causes include pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery, arteriovenous malformations, CSD, and choriocarcinoma. When the more common causes have been excluded, pelvic angiography may be performed.

UAP should be listed as a possible cause of postpartum hemorrhage after C/S. Trauma to the uterine artery during surgery may cause a defect in the arterial wall, through which arterial blood escapes and diffuses to the adjacent tissues, resulting in the formation of a hematoma. When this hematoma is in continuity with the uterine artery that supplies continuous blood flow, a pseudoaneurysm forms [6]. The absence of a three-layered arterial wall lining in a pseudoaneurysm differentiates it from a true aneurysm.

In an emergency setting, gray scale ultrasonography is an initial, noninvasive diagnostic tool and may reveal a pseudoaneurysm as a hypoechoic mass associated with the uterine incision. Color and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography may reveal a characteristic to-and-fro pattern, and it has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% [10, 11]. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis and help rule out other more common causes of delayed postpartum hemorrhage. Angiography remains the standard method for the diagnosis of UAP and may help in the design of definitive treatment strategies [12]. Recently, 3D power Doppler imaging has been used for the diagnosis of UAP. Alboni et al. reported that 3D power Doppler allows the users to define the dimensions of any lesion, detects complex flow patterns, and confirms the relationship between the viscera and the vascular lesion. In our case, we showed that if a specific diagnosis is not suspected, gray scale sonography may lead to misdiagnosis [13]. Color and pulsed Doppler sonography results led to the correct diagnosis of UAP, and 3D sonography and power Doppler imaging revealed the detailed relationship between vascular elements and dehiscence of the cesarean scar.

A pseudoaneurysm can result in life-threatening profuse postpartum hemorrhage when untreated or treated inadequately. In addition, iatrogenic rupture of the pseudoaneurysm may also occur. Henrich et al. reported a case in which vaginal examination caused rupture of the pseudoaneurysm requiring emergency hysterectomy [14]. Similarly, Eason and Tank reported a case of undiagnosed UAP with abundant bleeding after dilation and curettage that required immediate emergency hysterectomy [2]. Although the present patient underwent similar surgical procedures such as dilatation curettage, only minor bleeding was detected. However, sudden abundant bleeding during the preparation period indicates that UAP should be included as an obstetric emergency.

Women who have undergone C/S may develop UAP even in the absence of postpartum hemorrhage. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm can cause severe hemorrhage, although in some cases the rupture is limited by the surrounding tissues, causing intermittent bleeding. In addition, if the pseudoaneurysm is connected to the uterine cavity, postpartum hemorrhage may occur. If the pseudoaneurysm is not connected, hemorrhage may be confined to the abdominal cavity, leading to abdominal pain [6].

Extended uterine incision or additional hemostatic suture may be associated with the occurrence of UAP after C/S. Additional sutures often increase the risk of arterial wall damage, resulting in the development of a pseudoaneurysm however, an extended incision or additional sutures are not always correlated with UAP, and their absence does not preclude the occurrence of this disease [6]. All of these risk factors except repeated C/S were present in our case.

CSD is estimated to occur in 0.3–1.9% of cases, but bleeding disorders occur only in a small proportion of these cases [15]. Postpartum hemorrhage due to CSD is rarely reported [16]. Baba et al. reported a case of delayed postpartum hemorrhage associated with CSD requiring massive blood transfusion and surgical wound repair [16]. Recently, Sharma and Burbridge reported the results of a study of UAP and CSD. The authors managed UAP with uterine artery embolism however, conservative treatment for the coexisting CSD caused disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, pelvic abscess, and finally pulmonary embolism [17]. In our case, UAP and CSD were diagnosed concomitantly and the surgical management was adequately given both clinical diagnoses, resulting in the discharge of the patient without complications.

Uterine artery embolization has become an effective and safe treatment for postpartum hemorrhage, allowing the preservation of reproductive function. Recent reports described the use of thrombin injection directly into the pseudoaneurysm under ultrasound guidance, as a substitute for arterial embolization however, its indications and effectiveness have not yet been determined [18]. The surgical approach may be more suitable in cases of acute and massive bleeding in which there is no time for embolization and may depend on the specific resources available in each institution. Hysterectomy is one of the surgical options when the preservation of fertility is not important. On the other hand, uterine artery ligation and extirpation of UAP is another surgical choice for preserving fertility.

References

  1. G. Descargues, F. Douvrin, A. Gravier, J. P. Lemoine, L. Marpeau, and E. Clavier, “False aneurysm of the uterine pedicle: an uncommon cause of post-partum haemorrhage after caesarean section treated with selective arterial embolization,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
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  6. T. Kuwata, S. Matsubara, Y. Kaneko, A. Izumi, M. Nakata, and M. Suzuki, “Asymptomatic uterine artery pseudoaneurysm after cesarean section,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 405–410, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
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  9. T. Y. Khong and T. K. Khong, “Delayed postpartum hemorrhage: a morphologic study of causes and their relation to other pregnancy disorders,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  10. N. Butori, L. Coulange, L. Filipuzzi, D. Krausé, and R. Loffroy, “Pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery after cesarean delivery: management with superselective arterial embolization,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 540–543, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
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  12. S. Vedantham, S. C. Goodwin, B. McLucas, and G. Mohr, “Uterine artery embolization: an underused method of controlling pelvic hemorrhage,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 938–948, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  13. C. Alboni, F. Rosati, S. Sansavini et al., “Three-dimensional power Doppler imaging of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm treated unsuccessfully with selective embolization,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 614–616, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. W. Henrich, I. Fuchs, A. Luttkus, S. Hauptmann, and J. W. Dudenhausen, “Pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery after cesarean delivery: sonographic diagnosis and treatment,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1431–1434, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  15. S. S. Erickson and B. J. van Voorhis, “Intermenstrual bleeding secondary to cesarean scar diverticuli: report of three cases,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 802–805, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. T. Baba, M. Morishita, M. Nagata, Y. Yamakawa, and M. Mizunuma, “Delayed postpartum hemorrhage due to cesarean scar dehiscence,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 272, no. 1, pp. 82–83, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. A. M. Sharma and B. E. Burbridge, “Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the setting of delayed postpartum hemorrhage: successful treatment with emergency arterial embolization,” Case Reports in Radiology, vol. 2011, Article ID 373482, 4 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. M. Kovo, D. J. Behar, V. Friedman, and G. Malinger, “Pelvic arterial pseudoaneurysm𠅊 rare complication of Cesarean section: diagnosis and novel treatment,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 783–785, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright

Copyright © 2013 Ahmet Ozgur Yeniel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


DOE/EIA diesel price inches up as broader numbers move higher

The national average price of retail diesel eked out a small increase effective Monday, rising 0.2 cents per gallon to the highest level since November 2018.

The Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration published the price Tuesday, though it was listed as effective Monday.

The price of $3.255 a gallon is the fifth consecutive week that the benchmark number used in fuel surcharges rose. It also marks the sixth week that there was no decrease, as the week before the latest run of increases was unchanged from the prior week.

The DOE/EIA retail diesel price has not been this high since the $3.261-a-gallon number of Nov. 26, 2018.

Petroleum prices in general were stronger Tuesday with the benchmark Brent crude contract settling above $70 for the first time in roughly two years.

More importantly for the trucking and transport sector, the gain of 2.7 cents a gallon in the ultra low sulfur diesel price on the CME commodity exchange, to a settlement fo $2.0794, is the highest settlement in that key price since a settlement of $2.0614 a gallon on the first trading day of 2020. The ULSD contract traded as high as $2.1135 earlier in the day before falling back.

The DOE price rose only slightly even though wholesale diesel prices have climbed significantly in the last several days. According to the ULSDR.USA data series, the national average wholesale price for diesel is up 6.7 cents from May 28, rising to a level of $2.216/g Tuesday.

To learn more about FreightWaves SONAR, please go here.

The higher prices came on the same day that the OPEC+ group met to ratify a planned increase in output for July. The virtual meeting reportedly didn’t even last a half-hour but gave a go-ahead for the final stage of the previously approved plan to add approximately 2.1 million barrels per day of crude production to the market. That process began in May and will be finishing up that increase with the higher output in July.

Most models see oil markets are in significant deficit between supply and demand, and OPEC+ has no further plans to add production. But there are two wild cards.

First, in a statement issued after the meeting, OPEC Secretary-General Mohammad Barkindo described COVID-19 as a “persistent and unpredictable foe, and vicious mutations remain a threat.” There is doubt among some of the members of OPEC and its non-OPEC allies that make up OPEC+ whether the strong demand forecasts going forward will actually be realized because of lingering impact from the pandemic.

But what OPEC+ is even more concerned about is the role of Iran. Sanctions did not stop Iran from producing 2.43 million barrels per day in April, according to S&P Global Platts. That was its highest level in almost two years. With rumblings regarding progress on a new nuclear deal between Iran and Western nations, it opens the door to an easing of sanctions that could bring Iranian supply back to significantly higher numbers than that, a key area of concern for producers.

One other note about diesel prices: They are not increasing faster than crude. The spread of Brent to diesel measured in cents per gallon had been more than 42 cents several days ago but is now less than 40 cents.


The Other Gettysburg Address

Disunion follows the Civil War as it unfolded.

Even before the address was given, Americans knew that a great speech was coming, and that it would come at Gettysburg. The battle had been so comprehensive, and its result so profound, that a lasting statement was needed to mark the burial of the dead. That the final resting place of the soldiers was in the North, conveniently close to media outlets, only added to the logic of a solemn utterance for the ages. Accordingly, an invitation went out to the person most likely to give it.

Edward Everett had spent his life preparing for this moment. If anyone could put the battle into a broad historical context, it was he. His immense erudition and his reputation as a speaker set expectations very high for the address to come. As it turned out, Americans were correct to assume that history would forever remember the words spoken on that day. But they were not to be his. As we all know, another speaker stole the limelight, and what we now call the Gettysburg Address was close to the opposite of what Everett prepared. It was barely an Address at all simply the musings of a speaker with no command of Greek history, no polish on the stage, and barely a speech at all – a mere exhalation of around 270 words. Everett’s first sentence, just clearing his throat, was 19 percent of that – 52 words. By the time he was finished, about 2 hours later, he had spoken more than 13,000.

The remembrance of the dead was an essential theme for Everett, already regarded as one of the great orators in American history. In Massachusetts, where he grew up, memories of the Revolutionary heroes were vivid, and the Puritan ancestors had never quite left the stage. Everett remembered them all.

He remembered the Pilgrims at Plymouth, he remembered the founders of Boston, he remembered the veterans of Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill. In a memorable triumph, he remembered Lafayette while Lafayette was still present and accounted for, in 1825, during his triumphal return visit to the States. And he journeyed South, to remember Jefferson and Madison (whom he dined with), and in particular, to remember Washington. He remembered Washington many, many times – in the late 1850s he gave his Washington speech 136 times, and in the process, helped raise nearly $100,000 to save Mount Vernon. The very fact that we can today remember Washington so viscerally, by going to his home, owes a lot to this son of the North.

For Everett, remembrance of the past was tied to his lifelong love of Greece. Eager to search for democratic role models in history, Americans naturally turned to the Golden Age, and especially to the fifth century B.C. As a young man, Everett went to Greece to deepen his acquaintance, and returned an oracle of antiquity, able to commune with the spirits of the past, especially when a great funeral demanded remarks that spanned the centuries. America’s love for Greek oratory only deepened when Greece fought for independence from Ottoman Turkey in the 1820s, lending the crackle of current events to ancient strivings after freedom. To this day, the way Washington looks – the Doric columns and colonnades of the White House, the friezes of the Supreme Court and National Archives, the statuary of the Capitol – all owe something to the Greek fascination with the dead. And as they hungered after Greek authenticity, Americans turned to Everett, repeatedly, to interpret the past, and mark a path forward.

Despite the competing claims of a busy career, he obliged as often as possible. He lived deeply in the present, as governor of Massachusetts, congressman, president of Harvard, minister to the Court of St. James’s, secretary of state and senator. But he never stopped acting as America’s Oracle, channeling the spirits of the dead as Americans raced headlong into the future. His speeches were extraordinarily popular – on one occasion in New York, he spoke in an auditorium that seated thousands, and nevertheless, a mob stormed the barricades, desperate to be admitted.

The Gettysburg Address

It was one of the most powerful speeches in American history.

But for all his achievement, Everett had never had what Pericles had: a chance to memorialize the dead, slain in a recent battle. That was the greatest opportunity it was possible to imagine for a Greek orator, especially if the battle in question had changed the course of the war, and removed a lethal threat to democracy. Suddenly, the Civil War presented such a chance.

Unsurprisingly, Everett was approached to speak at Gettysburg. He consented, and the date was set for November, to give him enough time to prepare something of an epic nature. The programs were printed, and he set to work writing a speech that would be memorized, first by him, so he could give it without notes, and then by America’s schoolchildren. He immersed himself in the Greeks. He consulted deeply with local historians and military experts who told him the details of the battle. He read Lee’s own account of the battle, printed in a Virginia newspaper.

Inevitably, he wrote something very long that displayed these prodigious efforts. Dutifully, he submitted it to Lincoln ahead of time. Lincoln laughed, according to a witness, Noah Brooks, and said, “Solid men of Boston, make no long orations” – a line attributed to Daniel Webster.

By coincidence, on the day that the battle was finished, July 3, 1863, Everett was asked by a friend, Oliver Wendell Holmes, how long a respectable patriotic oration should be – Everett answered that 90 minutes was about right, but that two hours was acceptable. Then he sat back and waited for November, and his glorious speech.

Of course, Lincoln would be on the bill as well. That was altogether fitting and proper, as Lincoln would say. But no one expected a major utterance from the president. That was not his role. He was not a historian. He could not read Greek, or even Latin. Remembering his youth, so distant from the universities of the East, he wrote, “If a straggler supposed to understand Latin, happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked upon as a wizard.”

Lincoln and Everett had other differences as well. Everett ran against Lincoln in 1860, as the vice-presidential nominee on the Constitutional Union ticket, and as Lincoln came east to assume the presidency, Everett made acidulous comments in his diary about his orations: “These speeches thus far have been of the most ordinary kind, destitute of everything, not merely of felicity and grace, but of common pertinence. He is evidently a person of very inferior cast of character, wholly unequal to the crisis.”

But over 1862 and 1863, they warmed to each other, and Everett gave many speeches in defense of the beleaguered president and the war effort. It only made sense, then, that Everett would get top billing. Lincoln understood, and promised that his own remarks would be “short, short, short.”

When it came time to deliver the Gettysburg Address, Everett gave a brilliant performance, as all knew he would. That he was able to speak for two hours, without notes, was all the more impressive for a kidney ailment that often required him to urinate (a small tent had been placed discreetly nearby, and what he called a “pot-de-chambre” placed inside).

A diarist, Benjamin French, wrote, “Mr. Everett was listened to with breathless silence by all that immense crowd, and he had his audience in tears many times during his masterly effort.” He described the battle in detail, leaving listeners rapt, and in effect telling its history for the first time. Near the end of his remarks, he spoke movingly of reconciliation between North and South, a thought that the victory at Gettysburg made more palatable.

Greece was in the air from the moment he started, and his opening paragraphs went into numbing detail of funerary rites in Athens. A reporter, John Russell Young, wrote, of his 𠇊ntique courtly ways, fine keen eyes, the voice of singular charm.” But he added, ominously, “I felt as I looked at the orator, as if he was some antique Greek statue, so … beautiful … but so cold!”

Still, Everett’s triumph seemed complete. In his diary, Everett recorded, �ter I had done the President pressed my hand with great fervor, and said “I am more than gratified. I am grateful to you.”

Then Lincoln stood up, spoke his 272 words, and sat down.

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Disunion Highlights

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The rest, as they say, is history. Some prescient observers sensed the power of Lincoln’s achievement immediately. Everett was among them. The next day, he wrote to Lincoln: “I should be glad, if I could flatter myself, that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours, as you did in two minutes.” Lincoln replied gracefully.

With time, and frequent reprintings, it became obvious that Lincoln had created a lapidary masterpiece, whose brevity was not the least of its merits. He had succeeded in giving meaning to the terrible sacrifice, and repurposing the United States. He had elevated democracy, and equality, as fundamental aims of the government. And he had changed the way we talk. His 272 words were short – mostly one and two-syllables, derived from Anglo-Saxon and Norman roots, the way that Americans actually spoke. Not a lot of Greek and Latin in there.

Since then, each generation has continued to constrict language, sometimes at the cost of nuance. We are more efficient, and often more honest, when we leave out all the adjectives and say precisely what we mean. At the same time, Twitter’s relentless onslaught can leave a defoliated landscape, shorn of vegetation. But clearly, Lincoln’s way was better, and unlike so many of his generals, he brooked no delay in his pursuit of the objective in front of him.

Everett’s speech was soon forgotten. He would join the ranks of the dead only a year and a half later, on Jan. 15, 1865. (In his final speech, on Jan. 9, 1865, he once again reached out to the South, urging Bostonians to send food and supplies to the people of Savannah.) Fittingly, Lincoln ordered that national obsequies be observed for a fellow traveler who had grown closer to him through their shared experience at Gettysburg. Salutes were fired from government buildings, and the White House was draped in mourning. And then Everett entered a long night of oblivion.

But perhaps it is not entirely right to remember Everett’s epic address as an epic failure. To be sure, Lincoln was triumphant at Gettysburg – over the anti-democratic cause that had nearly prevailed with Lee’s army, and in a way, over death itself. But not over Everett. They had worked from different points of origin toward a common goal – a point that was itself democratic. And Everett’s lengthy speech was necessary for Lincoln to have the freedom to write “short, short short.” Like an old vaudeville act, featuring performers of different size and shape, the long and the short of it needed to go together.

A century and a half later, Edward Everett is largely invisible. But the orator who remembered so many others is not entirely forgotten. When the Lincoln Memorial was finished in 1922, it was adorned in a way that felt right to Americans – as a temple, with a frieze, and the Doric columns of ancient Greece.

Sources: Frank Freidel, �ward Everett at Gettysburg” Paul A. Varg, �ward Everett: The Intellectual in the Turmoil of Politics” Garry Wills, “Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words that Remade America” Gabor Boritt, “The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech that Nobody Knows” Louis A. Warren, “Lincoln’s Gettysburg Declaration: 𠆊 New Birth of Freedom.’”

Ted Widmer is assistant to the president for special projects at Brown University. He is the editor of “The New York Times: Disunion.”


Important Days and Dates in October 2020: National and International

October is a month of festivals and events. Festivals, events across the country are celebrated with full enthusiasm and have its own importance. Some events are focused on a particular theme. Here, we are providing the list of events (national and international) that fall in October 2020.

Important Days and Dates in October 2020

First Monday of October (In 2020, it falls on 5 October): World Habitat Day

World Habitat Day is observed on the first Monday of October month throughout the world. It was declared by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1985 and in 1986, the first time it was celebrated across the globe.

Second Thursday of October (In 2020, it falls on 8 October): World Sight Day

World Sight Day is observed on the second Thursday of October month. In 2020, it falls on 8 October. The aim of celebrating World Sight Day is to increase awareness about the attention in vision impairment and blindness.

International Day of the Older Persons is observed on 1 October every year to raise problems faced by elder persons and to promote the development of a society for all ages. The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on 14 December, 1990, and designates 1 October as the International Day of Older Persons.

International Coffee Day is celebrated on 1 October every year to recognise millions of people across the world from farmers, roasters, baristas, and coffee shop owners, etc. who do hard work to create and serve the beverage in the consumable form.

1 October - World Vegetarian Day

World Vegetarian Day is observed on 1 October annually. It was founded in 1977 by the North American Vegetarian Society (NAVS) and in 1978 was endorsed by the International Vegetarian Union.

2 October - Gandhi Jayanti

Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on 2nd October every year to mark the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. He was born on 2 October, 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. He is an inspiration in the lives of the famous world leaders and our lives also.

2 October - International Day of Non-Violence

International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2 October to mark the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi who had played an important role in India's Independence. On 15 June, 2007, General Assembly adopted a resolution of establishing the International Day of Non-Violence to spread the message of non-violence including education and public awareness.

3 October - German Unity Day

German Unity Day is celebrated on 3 October every year to mark the anniversary of the nation's unification. On 3 October, 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Democratic Republic of Germany were united as one single federal Germany.

World Animal Welfare Day is celebrated on 4 October to raise awareness among people about taking actions worldwide for the rights of animals as well as welfare. It is necessary to improve welfare standards worldwide.

5 October - World Teachers' Day

World Teachers' Day is celebrated on 5 October every year in the whole world to commemorate the anniversary of the adoption of the ILO/UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers in 1966. No doubt this Recommendation sets benchmarks regarding the rights and responsibilities of teachers, education, recruitment, employment, etc.

6 October - German-American Day

German-American Day is observed on 6 October every year. This day is celebrated as the German-American heritage.

8 October - Indian Air Force Day

Indian Air Force Day is celebrated on 8 October all over India. On 8 October, 1932 Indian Air Force Day was established.

9 October - World Post Day

World Postal Day is celebrated on 9 October every year to raise awareness among people about the role of the postal sector for people and businesses every day. In 1874, the Universal Postal Union was established in Bern, Switzerland and its anniversary is declared as the World Postal Day by the Universal Postal Union Congress in Tokyo, Japan in 1969.

10 October - World Mental Health Day

World Mental Health Day is observed on 10 October every year to raise awareness about the scale of suicide around the world and the role that each of us can play to help in preventing it. This day is organised by the World Federation for Mental Health. It is also supported by WHO, the International Association for Suicide Prevention, and United for Global Mental Health.

International Day of the Girl Child is observed on 11 October to raise voices for girls and stand up for their rights.

International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction is observed annually on 13 October to raise awareness about the risk of disaster reduction. In 1989, the International Day of Disaster Risk Reduction was started by the United Nations General assembly.

14 October - World Standards Day

World Standards Day is observed on 14 October every year to raise awareness among the regulators, industry, and consumers to show the importance of standardization to the global economy.

15 October - Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day

Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day is observed on 15 October annually in the United States. This day is a day of remembrance for pregnancy loss and infant death. It is observed with remembrance ceremonies and candle-lighting vigils.

Global Handwashing Day is observed on 15 October every year and it was founded by the Global Handwashing Partnership. This day provides an opportunity to design, test and replicate creative ways to encourage people to wash their hands with soap at critical times. In 2008, the first Global Handwashing Day was celebrated.

15 October - World White Cane Day

World White Cane Day is celebrated on 15 October by the National Federation of the Blind. White cane for the blind people is an essential tool that gives them the ability to achieve a full and independent life. With the help of white cane, they can move freely and safely from one place to another.

15 October - World Students’ Day

World Students’ Day is observed on 15 October annually to mark the birth anniversary of A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. This day honours and pays respect to him and his efforts in the field of science and technology and also the role of the teacher that he played throughout his scientific and political careers.

16 October - World Food Day

World Food Day is celebrated every year on 16 October to inspire people about healthy diets. On this day Food and Agriculture Organisation was established and launched by the United Nations in 1945.

World Anaesthesia Day is celebrated on October 16 to mark the first successful demonstration of diethyl ether anaesthesia in 1846.

16 October: Boss Day

National Boss Day or Boss's Day is celebrated on 16 October to appreciate the works of their employers. The day also acknowledges the hard work, dedication, and challenges faced by the managers or superiors in an organisation.

16 October: World Spine Day

It is observed on 16 October to highlights the burden of spinal pain and disability around the world.

International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is observed on 17 October every year. This day marks the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on 20 November 1989.

20 October - World Statistics Day

World Statistics Day is celebrated every five years on October 20. The first such day was observed on October 20, 2010. This year the world witnessed the third World Statistics Day. The day was created by the United Nations Statistical Commission to acknowledge the importance of data authenticity and credibility across the globe.

23 October - Mole Day

Mole Day is observed on 23 October every year. This day commemorates Avogadro's Number which is a basic measuring unit in chemistry. This day was created to generate interest in chemistry.

24 October - United Nations Day

United Nations Day is observed on 24 October every year to mark the anniversary of the UN Charter's entry into force. Since 1948, this day is celebrated and in 1971 it was recommended by the United Nations General Assembly to observe by the Member States as a public holiday.

24 October - World Development Information Day

World Development Information Day is celebrated on 24 October every year to draw the attention of the world to development problems and the need to strengthen international cooperation to solve them.

30 October - World Thrift Day

World Thrift Day is observed on 30 October every year in India and in worldwide it is observed on 31st October. This day is devoted to the promotion of savings all over the world.

31 October - Rashtriya Ekta Diwas or National Unity Day

Rashtriya Ekta Diwas or National Unity Day is observed on 31 October every year to commemorate the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhai Patel. He had played an important role in unifying the country.


Welcome to The Unheard Beethoven!

This website endeavors to make all of Beethoven’s unrecorded music readily accessible to the public. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, composer to ever live. Most people are familiar with a few of his works, if nothing more than the beginning of the Fifth Symphony, the Finale of the Ninth Symphony and the ‘Moonlight Sonata ‘.

Beethoven of course wrote a great deal more than those well-known works one catalog of his compositions runs to 849 separate items. While several hundred of these works have been recorded on one medium or another, there still remain literally hundreds of other works which have never been recorded at all, or which have never been published in widely available editions or in some cases, never published at all! There are thus hundreds of Beethoven works which, until now, have been available only to scholars and specialists.

Now YOU may judge for yourself as to whether these pieces deserve a wider hearing and the ability to join the repertoire. These never-before-heard works are now available to anyone with a computer and an Internet connection, in the form of MIDI files and mp3s. Our rule of thumb has been that if a work has been recorded and is readily available, we will not produce a recording, concentrating instead on the works which are not otherwise available. At present, over sixteen hours of Beethoven’s music is available on this website and in no other listenable format.


October 18, 2013 Day 272 of the Fifth Year - History

Turning over the toy box and jamming together the gloriously mismatched musical Lincoln Logs, Legos and Tinker Toys from Tin Pan Alley pluggers, pickled egg tavern weepers, lockstep soul ensembles, skinny-tie power poppers, Eurotrash ravers, moontanned art school rockers, drunken soccer anthems and anything else that seems like a good idea at the time. There are no guilty pleasures.

WFMU's Give the Drummer Radio and Hinky Dinky Time denounce explicit and implicit racism.
We condemn the culture of white supremacy, which enables the brutalization of black people and other communities of color.
We support Black Lives Matter and the movement it stands for.

RSS feeds for Hinky Dinky Time with Uncle Michael : Playlists feed | MP3 archives feed

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Watch the video: ΤΡΙΑΝΤΑΦΥΛΛΕΝΗ - ΚΑΤΕΡΙΝΑ ΚΑΜΠΑΝΕΛΛΗ στην εκπομπή Τρένο Φάντασμα στο Κανάλι 6 (July 2022).


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