Forward gun of USS Luce (DD-99)

Forward gun of USS Luce (DD-99)

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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.

A Deep-Rooted History of Hemp in the U.S., More Than 80 Years After the Marijuana Tax Act

How did a humble plant in the cannabis family become the basis for a booming industry?

Charlotte's Web

When you think of hemp, does your brain conjure up imagery of beatniks, hippies, or hipsters? You might not be wrong, but hemp’s history in the United States is way more deeply rooted than that. Before it became known as a popular wellness supplement, it was used in the U.S.—and throughout cultures around the world—across all aspects of life. Bear Reel, plant breeder and Head of Cultivation Research & Development for CBD market leader Charlotte’s Web, sat down to shed some light on the history of hemp, the misunderstood plant within the cannabis family that Charlotte’s Web cultivates for its full-spectrum hemp extract.

“Historically, often in clandestine operations, people over time selected cannabis plants that would get them intoxicated,” Reel says. “They would save seeds from those plants, and over time they bred those plants together to be even more intoxicating.” That’s why today’s recreational or medicinal marijuana plants have such high levels of THC—that’s the compound found in cannabis plants that can produce a psychotropic effect.

“On the other side, we have people who have bred hemp for many years, that does not get you intoxicated at all,” says Reel. While hemp and psychoactive marijuana are both plants in the cannabis family, they are separate species. Today, Charlotte’s Web is known for its range of products using a full-spectrum hemp extract, which features higher levels of CBD—a non-intoxicating compound—as well as other compounds naturally found in hemp, like terpenes and flavonoids. These compounds work together to help support management from everyday stresses*, a sense of calm*, and healthy sleep cycles* in people who use them. But a series of political decisions made it nearly impossible to produce consumer-facing hemp-based products legally for almost a century.

Charlotte's Web CBD Oil: 17mg CBD per 1mL

Hemp’s Early Beginnings

Well before any kind of laws were put in place to regulate it, hemp was cultivated and used around the world for thousands of years both for its long, durable fiber and for its versatile seeds. The cultivation of hemp began more than 10,000 years ago in the region that is modern day Taiwan, as one of the world’s first agricultural crops. The earliest known fabric made from hemp was woven somewhere between 8,000 and 7,000 B.C.E., found in present day Iraq. Hemp-made rope imprints found on Chinese pottery can be dated back to around the same time. Between 2,000 and 800 B.C.E. cultivation of hemp continued to spread throughout Asia and the Middle East, with hemp leaves featured in the sacred Hindu text “Atharvaveda.” The earliest paper made from hemp is thought to be from 140 B.C.E. You get the idea. Hemp in society is not a new phenomenon.

Hemp in the American Colonies

For its role in America, fast forward to the early 17th century, where hemp was a major resource in colonial life. In Jamestown, Virginia, hemp was brought over from England, grown in the new colony, and used to make rope, sails, and clothing, among other things. Leading up to the Revolutionary War, many of the colonies were compelled by law to grow hemp to be sent back to England, creating an industry around the crop that ultimately led to it being used as a currency and method with which to pay taxes. Several early American towns got their names thanks to their most abundant crop, including: Hempstead, New York Hemphill, Kentucky and Hempfield, Pennsylvania. By 1776, the United States Declaration of Independence was even drafted on hemp paper.

Hemp in the 20th Century

By the 19th century, hemp was recognized for its wellness uses, in addition to its industrial uses—but its properties were tied up with those of marijuana, and the distinction between the two species was muddled. Prompted by a trickle of incremental federal and state regulation in the early 20th century, the bountiful reign of hemp in the states came to a halt with the passing of the Marihuana Tax Act (now commonly referred to using the modern spelling, as the Marijuana Tax Act), which went into effect October 1, 1937.

The 75th U.S. Congress passed the act, which was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to “impose an occupational excise tax upon certain dealers in marijuana, to impose a transfer tax upon certain dealings in marijuana, and to safeguard the revenue there from by registry and recording.” While only marijuana is mentioned in the text, hemp was included—heavily limiting the production of both types of cannabis plants for commercial and industrial uses.

But of course, the story doesn’t end there. “Historically and traditionally, hemp was bred for things like seed content, seed oils, hemp powder, hemp protein,” says Reel. Primarily, the focus was on the seeds of the plant and the fibers of the plant. By 1942, the production of hemp was back in full swing with support from the USDA, who launched a program called ‘Hemp for Victory’. This program focused on growing hemp for its use in textiles, like ropes for the Navy, to bolster the United States’ efforts in World War II, calling back to its early colonial usage (more than 120,000 pounds of hemp fiber was needed to rig the 44-gun USS Constitution).

Come 1970, the hemp industry was challenged once again. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), signed into law by President Richard Nixon, classified hemp, alongside heroin, methamphetamines, and marijuana as a “schedule I substance,” meaning it was considered illegal because of its allegedly high potential for abuse, lack of wellness use, and severe safety concerns. For over 40 years, this misleading stigma around the cannabis family persevered. During this time, a number of states decided to allow the cultivation of industrial hemp—but farmers were always at risk of being penalized by the federal government.

Present Day Hemp

But the Farm Bill, signed into law in 2014 by President Barack Obama, provided some hope it allowed some farmers to grow hemp legally, under USDA and state supervision. These pilot programs helped shift public opinion, leading to record-high support for legalizing marijuana use—over two-thirds of the population were in favor, according to a Gallup poll in 2017. The most recent Farm Bill, signed into law in 2018 by President Donald Trump, finally removed hemp from schedule I of the CSA, legalizing its production for all purposes.

And that brings us to today. “Today, especially here at Charlotte’s Web, we breed for high cannabinoid levels—specifically, CBD,” says Reel. “CBD is a common molecule in hemp that will not get you intoxicated at all,” she adds. Charlotte’s Web has led the charge in an industry that is now booming, with new products being innovated every day. From tinctures and topicals, to gummies and even dog chews, Americans are finally learning the difference between hemp and marijuana. With companies like Charlotte’s Web producing quality products derived from hemp, it has not only regained its status as a wonder crop, but is part of a new, modern chapter in the history books.

That’s a wrap on Hemp 101. But if you want to ace the class, why not take advantage of hemp’s legal status, and experience it for yourself?

Charlotte's Web CBD 101 Bundle

The CBD 101 Bundle from Charlotte’s web will get you up to speed with the latest innovations in full-spectrum hemp extract. It features one bottle of 17mg CBD Oil, one bottle of 15mg CBD Liquid Capsules (which are both consumed orally) and one mini hemp-infused Balm for your skin.

Looking for more on hemp's history? Check out Episode 4 of the Charlotte's Web series Searching for Answers:

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

23 October 2006

Can We Question Their Patriotism Yet?

Now we find the New York Times admits that they were wrong to publish the story about SWIFT, saying that it was indeed legal, and that they were "embarassed by the how-secret-is-it" issue.

Also in the news is a story that Ted Kennedy conspired with the Soviets to wage a PR campaign against President Reagan. That's not all, he also conspired with the Soviets against President Carter, of all people, and was also instrumental in getting restrictions put on the CIA and FBI to hamper their intelligence gathering capabilities. Serious allegations, ones that certainly merit further exhaustive investigation, followed quickly by a long drop and a short rope if found to be true.

On a happier note, I got another locomotive, cause you just can't have too many (regardless of what The Management says). This one is a twin to one already on my roster, a Bachmann 2-8-0 Consolidation in N scale, and now I can double head my freight if I want to with steam instead of the F-7 ABBA lashup. I should have a 4-6-2 Pacific coming soon that will be just perfect heading up the passenger special.

The First British Invasion of Basra, 22 November 1914

At the outbreak of the First World War Britain intended to send three forces from its Indian Army overseas. The largest, Indian Expeditionary Force A, was headed for France. IEF B and C were both to be sent to East Africa, the former to attack German colonies and the latter to defend British ones.

Once it became likely that the Ottoman Empire would enter the war on the side of the Central Powers an additional force, IEF D, was sent to Basra in the Persian Gulf, now part of Iraq but then Ottoman territory. The British in those days normally called modern day Iraq Mesopotamia.

The IEF sailed from India on 16 October. The Royal Navy’s role in the transport of IEF A and C was confined to protecting them from German cruisers by escorting them to their destinations. However, IEF B and D had to land on enemy territory.

IEF B arrived at Tanga in German East Africa (now Tanzania) on 2 November, landing the next day. On 4 November it was defeated by local German forces commanded by Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. The defeated troops were re-embarked the next day.

The British Official History of Naval Operations suggests that defeat was owed ‘partly perhaps to insufficient artillery support from the sea.’[1] The expedition was accompanied only by the protected cruiser HMS Fox. The pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Goliath had suffered mechanical problems and the modern light cruisers HMS Chatham, Dartmouth and Weymouth were blockading the German light cruiser SMS Königsberg in the Rufiji River.

IEF D was intended to protect Britain’s interests in the Gulf, the most important of which were the oil refinery on the Persian (now Iranian) island of Abadan at the mouth of the Shatt at Arab river and the pipeline connecting it to the Persian oilfields. The oilfields, pipeline and refinery were owned by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (now BP).

The Royal Navy had gradually switched from coal to oil in the 10 years leading up to the war. By 1914 the light cruisers and battleships under construction were to be fuelled exclusively by oil. This meant that it needed secure supplies, so in 1914 the Admiralty took a 50% stake in APOC and gave it a 20 year supply contract in return for providing the capital needed to develop the Persian oilfields.[2]

Admiral Sir Edmond Slade, the Admiralty’s oil expert, wanted troops to be sent to protect the oilfields:

‘It is…of urgent importance that the troops indicated should be sent at once in order to safeguard our supply of oil…This question of defence has nothing to do with the investment of Government capital in the Company…It is necessary in order to ensure the due supply of oil required for the Fleet.’[3]

On the other hand, Winston Churchill, who as First Lord of the Admiralty was responsible for the deal with APOC, disagreed with Slade, writing on his minute that ‘[t]here is little likelihood of any troops being available for this purpose. Indian forces must be used at the decisive point. We shall have to buy our oil from elsewhere.[4]

Churchill’s reluctance to protect the Persian oil installations appears surprising given his role in the government’s purchase of shares in APOC, but it is consistent with his pre-war opinion. In a 1913 Cabinet memorandum on naval oil supplies he assumed ‘that in time of war money would be no object.’[5] The objective of the APOC contract was to build up an oil reserve of six months’ wartime naval oil consumption relatively cheaply in peacetime.

The oil facilities were very important, but they were not Britain’s only interest in the region. It is now assumed that everything in the Middle East is about oil, but in 1914 General Sir Edmund Barrow, the Military Secretary to the India Office, argued that:

‘troops could be landed on Persian soil at Mohammerah [now Khorramshahr] or at Abadan island, ostensibly to protect the oil installation, but in reality to notify to the Turks that we meant business and to the Arabs that we were ready to support them… With the Arabs on our side a Jihad is impossible, and our Indian frontier is safe from attack.’[6]

Britain then had good relations with a number of Arab rulers who were nominally subjects of the Ottoman Empire but had a fair degree of autonomy. It feared that in a war with the Ottoman Empire the Ottoman Sultan, who was also the Caliph, might call a Jihad, resulting in a revolt by Britain’s Muslim subjects, especially in British India, which included modern Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Despite Churchill’s views IEF D was sent to the Gulf. It initially consisted of the 16th Brigade of the 6th (Poona) Division, commanded by Brigadier-General Walter Delamain.

There were only three small British warships in the region: the sloops HMS Espiègle and Odin of the Cadmus class and the Indian Marine ship Dalhousie. They were too small to deal with SMS Emden, which was known to be in the Indian Ocean, so IEF D was escorted by the pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Ocean, captained by Captain Arthur Hayes-Sadler, who was put in charge of the naval part of the operation.

IEF D reached Bahrain on 28 October. The next day the Ottoman fleet, commanded by the German Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, and including the battlecruiser Goeben and the light cruiser Breslau, attacked Russian bases in the Black Sea. On 30 October, Delamain was ordered to proceed to the Shatt-al-Arab and another brigade of the 6th Division, the 18th, was sent to the Gulf. The next day he was warned that war with the Ottoman Empire was imminent.

Lord Crewe, the Secretary of State for India, had given the following instructions to the Indian Government regarding the operation:

‘The intention is to occupy Abadan, with the Force under orders, protect the oil-tanks and pipe-line, cover the landing of reinforcements, in the event of such being necessary, and show the Arabs that our intention is to support then against the Turks.’[7]

The British force reached the sandbar in the estuary of the Shatt-al-Arab on 3 November. Two days later Britain declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The next day the convoy entered the Shatt, apart for Ocean, which was too big to cross the bar. A battery of four guns beside the ruined fort of Fao was quickly silenced by Odin and the position taken by a landing force of 600 men. An Ottoman force appeared near Abadan, but were dispersed by gunfire from Espiègle.

Original Source:
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person’s official duties under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code

Delamain then took the rest of his brigade, two or three miles up the river and landed on the Ottoman side. By 10 November his troops, less a small garrison at Fao, were entrenched in a position that covered the oil refinery. An Ottoman attack on 11 November was beaten off.

The Ottoman telegraph cable from Upper Mesopotamia connected to the British one to Persia and India at Fao. The Ottomans had cut the cable, but the British quickly repaired it.

By 15 November the 18th Brigade and the artillery and divisional troops of the 6th Division had arrived. Its commander, Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Barrett, had instructions to take Basra. Intelligence from prisoners indicated that an attack by up to 10 Ottoman battalions was likely. A rapid victory was also likely to impress the Arabs, so Barrett decided to move on Basra quickly.[8]

Delamain’s brigade, plus two batteries of mountain artillery, defeated an Ottoman force at Saihan on 15 November. By the next day all the infantry and cavalry but only part of the artillery was ashore. Barrett decided to advance, with Odin, Espiègle, the armed yacht Lewis Pelly and the armed tug Sirdar-i-Naphte providing fire support from the river.

The main Ottoman force covering the route to Basra was attacked on 19 November at the mud fort at Kut-az-Zain. The Ottomans withdrew once the fort was destroyed by artillery and naval gunfire, but heavy rain turned the ground into a quagmire, meaning that the British cavalry could not turn the retreat into a rout. This action is referred to as being at Sahil by the British Official Histories.[9] “Sahil” is actually the local word for “shore”, so the name probably results from a misunderstanding.[10]

The Ottomans now made an attempt to block the Shatt-al-Arab using a Hamburg-Amerika liner that had been trapped in Basra and a number of smaller vessels. Barrett’s force was dependent on river transport, so this was potentially a very serious setback to his plans

On 19 November Hayes-Sadler went to investigate the obstacle in Espiègle. She came under fire from a shore battery of four 15 pounders, an armed launch and the gunboat Marmariss. Espiègle silenced the shore guns, sank the launch and forced Marmariss to withdrew without being hit herself. It then transpired that the passage was not completely blocked.

The Ottoman forces defending the approach to Basra and the city’s garrison withdrew the next day. By 5 pm on 21 November Espiègle, Odin and the newly arrived Indian Marine ship Lawrence were anchored off Basra’s Custom House. A blank round was fired in order to discourage looters, and naval parties were landed to deal with the fires that they had started. The first infantry arrived on the morning of 22 November.

The next day it was proclaimed that Basra was under British protection. The Sheikh of Kuwait was informed that Britain now recognised his territory as being an independent principality under British protection. The Ottoman Empire claimed it, but the Sheikh had placed himself under British protection by treaty in 1899.

The next stage of the campaign was an advance up river to Qurna, which was taken on 9 December. The initial objectives had then been achieved, but the Mesopotamian Campaign then grew as a result of mission creep. The capture of one place led to claims that somewhere else had to be taken to protect it. Easy early victories led to over confidence and there was a desire for further victories in a war that was going badly.

The lack of railways and roads meant that the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris were vital for communications, meaning that the RN continued to play an important role in this land campaign.

[1] J. S. Corbett, H. Newbolt, Naval Operations, 5 vols. (London: HMSO, 1938). vol. i, p. 374.

[2] M. Gibson, ‘”Oil Fuel Will Absolutely Revolutionize Naval Strategy”: The Royal Navy’s Adoption of Oil before the First World War,’ in A Military Transformed? Adaption and Innovation in the British Military, 1792-1945, ed. R. Mahoney, Mitchell, S., LoCicero, M. (Solihull: Helion and Company, 2014), pp. 110-23.

[3] NA, ADM 137/6, ‘Persian Gulf, Part 1, 30 July – 31 October 1914’, 1914.

[5] NA, CAB 37/115/39, ‘Oil Fuel Supply for H.M. Navy’, 1913, p. 5.

[6] Quoted in F. J. Moberly, The Campaign in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918, 4 vols. (London: HMSO, 1923). vol. i, p. 87.

[7] PP, Mesopotamia Commission. Report of the Commission Appointed by Act of Parliament to Enquire into the Operations of War in Mesopotamia, Together with a Separate Report by Commander J. Wedgwood, D.S.O., M.P., and Appendices, HMSO 1917 [Cd. 8610]. p. 12.

[8] Moberly, Mesopotamia. vol i, p. 109.

[9] Corbett, Newbolt, Naval. vol. i, p. 389 Moberly, Mesopotamia. vol. i, p. 120.

[10] A. J. Barker, The First Iraq War, 1914-1918: Britain’s Mesopotamian Campaign (New York, NY: Enigma, 2009). This book was originally published in 1967 under the titles The Neglected War in the UK and The Bastard War in the US.

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Warship Wednesday, April 25, 2018: Big Vincent and the seagoing pyro party

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, April 25, 2018: Big Vincent and the seagoing pyro party

Watercolor by William Lionel Wylie in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Caird Collection (PAF1774)

Here we see the last of the Royal Navy’s Arrogant-class cruisers, HMS Vindictive (P.4C), going through just over an hour’s time at the center of hell along the Mole in the German-occupied Belgian port city of Zeebrugge on St. George’s Day, 100 years ago this week.

The four-pack of Arrogant-class 2nd class protected cruisers were approved under the 1895/96 Programme and designed for fleet use rather than in protecting trade from enemy auxiliary cruisers in wartime (at the time thought most likely to be Russian) and policing colonies. As such, they were a bit beamier than the nine preceding Eclipse-class cruisers (5,700 tons, 350x53ft, 18.5kts, 5x QF 6″ guns) while being faster. The subsequent Arrogants went 5,840-tons with a 320-foot overall length while having a 57-foot beam and a ram bow.

A group of 18 Belleville water-tube boilers (the first installed on a British cruiser of the size) and pair of 3-cyl VTE engines on twin screws enabled these ships to be considered 󈬄-knot” ships (on forced draught) while a battery of four 6″/40cal QF Mk II singles and six 4.7-inch guns gave them comparable muscle to the Eclipses. The first two vessels of the class, Arrogant and Furious, were built at Devonport, while the third, Gladiator, was laid down at Portsmouth.

Our hero, the fourth and last of the family, Vindictive, was laid down at Chatham Dock Yard in Kent on 27 Jan. 1896, carrying the name of a hard-luck Napoleonic War-era 74-gun third-rate ship of the line that was only broken up two decades before.

HMS Vindictive, from Navy and Army Illustrated, 1900, via Wiki

Commissioned on the 4th of July in 1900, she was a happy peacetime ship that served in the British Mediterranean Squadron for a decade before she was considered obsolete in the rapidly advancing days of post-Dreadnought naval technology.

In ordinary for two years from 1909-10, her armament was revamped, and she was modernized. Gone were the old MkII guns and 4.7s, replaced by a homogenous group of 10 new MkVII 6″/45cal breechloaders, among the snazziest British guns of the era.

Here is her diagram from the 1914 Janes.

In the above, note that she is the only one of her class left listed in the naval almanac. This is because Gladiator sank after a collision with the American liner (and Warship Wednesday alumni) SS Saint Paul in a heavy snowstorm off the Isle of Wight in 1908, Arrogant had become a depot ship in 1911 and Furious had likewise been hulked, leaving Vindictive as the sole member of the group still with the fleet by the time the Great War began– and even that was as a tender to the Home Squadrons.

On August 6:
0630: N.D.L. (Norddeutscher Lloyd) S.S. Schlesien boarded by Lieutenant Sayle R.N.R. and Fleet Paymaster G.A. Miller. Lat 46 02 N, Long 7 37 W. Reported carrying general cargo to Antwerp. Lieutenant Sayle and an armed guard of 13 men proceeded in the ship to Plymouth by order of Rear Admiral.
3.20 pm: Fired shot ahead of Austrian S.S. Alfa Austrian steamer S.S. Alfa boarded by Lieutenant Pope R.N.R. and Fleet Paymaster Miller in Lat 45 24 N, Long 7 56 W. Reported carrying a cargo of grain. Ship ordered to report herself at Falmouth. Boarding Party returned.
8.30 pm: Atlantea S.N. Co. S.S. Polnay under Austrian Flag boarded by Lieutenant Pope and Fleet Paymaster G.A. Miller in Lat 44 57 W, Long 8 05 W. Reported carrying grain consigned to order at Rotterdam. Ship ordered to report herself at Falmouth. Boarding party returned.

Sept 8:
German collier Slawentzitz boarded by Commander Grayson, Lieutenant Sayle R.N.R. and Fleet Paymaster Miller. 5044 tons of coal consigned to Haiffa Syria. Lieutenant Sayle and prize crew of 13 men placed on board and ship sent to Gibraltar.

Following this, Vindictive was sent to warm Equatorial waters along the Abrolhos Rocks off Brazil and spent the next 18 months on the lookout for German surface raiders and submarines, boarding passing ships but largely having no reportable results.

Then, in June 1916, she was recalled to Britain for a change of pace that saw her deploy in October to Romanov (Murmansk) in the frozen wastes of the White Sea to protect the growing stockpile of Allied war material in that isolated Arctic backwater. She shuttled from there to Arkhangelsk and conducted drills with the locals and other visiting Allied ships until she was recalled to Plymouth once more in October 1917– just before Russia really went to crap in the Revolution.

Chilling back in England with the war at its fiercest, the old cruiser without a mission was to pull one heck of a job.

It was decided that she would be part of the big push to block the Belgian port at Zeebrugge, home to flotillas of German patrol boats and squadrons of U-boats. The task was three-fold, with (1) Vindictive and two converted Mersey ferries– Iris and Daffodil— coming alongside the mile-long Mole so they could discharge a battalion of sailors and Marines to go ashore and jack up the port while (2) a group of old cruisers–HMS Thetis, HMS Intrepid, and HMS Iphigenia— sank themselves as blockships in the Bruges Canal and (3) an old submarine blew the Mole itself.

Vindictive would be commanded during the raid by Capt. Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter, an RN veteran with service that dated back to the Boxer Rebellion.

The raid in a 2-minute nutshell:

To carry out her job as a landing ship (held to the Mole by a ship pushing bow on her starboard), the portside of Vindictive was fitted with a fly deck with 18 gangways handled by derricks, to allow rapid disembarkation of the landing force, made up of most of the 4th RMLI battalion and two companies of armed Jacks.

To provide more protection than her thin Harvey armor could on her exposed topside, splinter mats were installed liberally. Besides the mats, two Mk I 7.5-inch howitzers were mounted to go along with her four remaining 6-inch BL guns and as many Vickers Maxim guns as could be found. The Marine Storming Party, as it was termed, was equipped with 16 81mm Stokes trench mortars, one 11-inch howitzer (mounted aft), five 1-pounder (37mm) quick-firing Vickers Mark 1 pom-pom guns, and 16 Lewis guns which both added to Vindictive‘s armament and provided some mobile artillery to be taken ashore during the raid.

Photograph (Q 46476) Model of HMS Vindictive with extra armament, landing planks, and mats installed for Zeebrugge. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

The foretop of HMS VINDICTIVE armed with two pom-pom guns and six Lewis guns. Note the use of splinter mats. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

THE ZEEBRUGGE RAID, 23-24 APRIL 1918 (Q 55568) HMS VINDICTIVE after returning to Dover following the Zeebrugge Raid, showing one of the two 7.5-inch howitzers and a brace of four Stokes mortars specially fitted out for the raid to provide fire support for the landing parties in the planned assault on the German gun battery at the seaward end of the mole at Zeebrugge. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

Going along with the Marines were 34 engineers, all volunteers of the Royal Naval Air Service Experimental Party, or Pyrotechnic Party, led by Lt. Graham S. Hewett, R.N.V.R., with Lt. A. L. Eastlake, R.E., second-in-command, armed with a variety of demolition charges, “fixed and portable flame-throwers, phosphorus grenades, etc.” Among these were a “telescopic” fixed flamethrower capable of sending a jet 90m– made by the J Morriss & Sons Ltd, an engineering company from Manchester that normally made fire hoses– as well as two very large five-man weapons fixed to a steel A-frame, these latter guns were called “Vincents” after Vindictive.

Demonstration of large crew-served Vincent flamethrower that was used by HMS Vindictive during the Zeebrugge raid. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

The group’s portable flame weapons consisted of the scuba-tank like Hay Flame Gun, created by Captain P. S. Hay of the Ministry of Munitions in December of 1917. It was the only portable British-made flamethrower used in WWI.

As described in The Flamethrower by Chris McNab, via The Great War website:

The operator slung the Hay Flame Gun from a shoulder strap so that it hung in front of his chest. He pressed a button on a dry-cell battery mounted on the lance, which ignited a pilot light under the nozzle. He then squeezed the oil-release valve at the base of the lance, which was identical to the brake handle on automobiles of the era.

The oil was pressurized with deoxygenated air pumped directly into the tank. When the operator ran or jumped, the propellant gas mixed with the oil and produced a foam, which greatly limited the range. For this reason, other flamethrowers had either separate internal propellant chambers or bottles attached externally to the oil tank.

The Hay Flame Gun was 35 inches tall by 5.5 inches in diameter. It carried 2.6 gallons of oil, which gave it a laden weight of 66 lbs. It had a range of about 66 feet and a duration of 15 seconds. A total of 36 where ordered by the Admiralty for use at Zeebrugge of which about 15 Hay Flame Guns were used in the raid in the raid In April 1918. The Flamethrowers were used to engulf the Mole parapet with liquid fire to clear any opposition before the storming parties went ashore.

Members of the crew of HMS PRINCE EUGENE cleaning the upper deck of HMS VINDICTIVE after her return to Dover following the Zeebrugge Raid. One sailor holds a Hay Flame Gun type flamethrower of the type used on the mole by members of the Royal Naval Air Service Experimental Party in support of the Royal Marine and naval landing parties. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

Flamethrowers and Stores mortars used by a landing party on the Mole at Zeebrugge. Also shown in the photograph a piece of the Mole brought back by HMS Vindictive after an attack on 23rd April 1918, a rum measure and an alarm gong from the Jetty. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

Vindictive hit the Mole on schedule and was the center of the German fury during the raid. It was her illumination rockets that the Marines and sailors fought by, her smoke screen, flame and fire they were covered by, and her collision sirens that they retired to at the end of the operation.

As noted in the after-action report on the raid by Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, everything involving Vindictive came off as planned:

According to the time-table, the hour at which the “Vindictive” (Captain Alfred F. B. Carpenter) should have been laid alongside the Zeebrugge Mole was midnight. She reached her station one minute after midnight, closely followed by the “Daffodil” (Lieutenant Harold Campbell) and “Iris II” (Commander Valentine Gibbs). A few minutes later the landing of the storming and demolition parties began. By 1.10 a.m. the “Vindictive” had taken off the survivors, who had meanwhile done their work upon the Mole, and by 1.15 a.m. she and her consorts were clear of the Mole.

In the 75 minutes she spent on the Mole, Vindictive took a terrible beating, but she made it back to Dover under her own steam.

THE ZEEBRUGGE RAID, 22-23 APRIL 1918 (Q 55566) HMS VINDICTIVE at Dover following the Zeebrugge Raid showing the damage done by German gunfire to the ship’s bridge, foretop, and forward armored flamethrower hut. Note the mattresses used to protect exposed parts of the ship’s superstructure from bullets and shell splinters. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

HMS Vindictive damaged via Underwood & Underwood – Popular Science Magazine July 1918

PW1862: ‘HMS ‘Vindictive’ returning from the Zeebrugge Raid, 24 April 1918′ by William Lionel Willie circa 1918. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Caird Collection

“Vindictive after Zeebrugge” 1918 May 23, Bain News Service print via LOC

German propaganda photo of the above

Besides Carpenter, who received the VC from the King as well as the Croix de Guerre and Legion of Honor from France, several officers received lesser awards while 18 of Vindictive‘s crew picked up Distinguished Service Medals:

Ch. Air Mech. Clifford Armitage, R.N.A.S., O.N. F6981.
E.R.A., 4th Cl., Norman Carroll, O.N. M17679 (Ch.).
E.R.A., 3rd Cl., Herbert Cavanagh, O.N. M1111 (Po.).
Sto., 1st Cl., William Crawford, O.N. K34438 (Ch.).
M.A.A. Charles George Dunkason, O.N. 191301 (Po.).
Arm. Arthur William Evans, O.N. M7148 (Ch.).
Ldg. Sig. Albert James Gamby, O.N. J11326 (Ch.).
A.B. Arthur Geddes, O.N. J30822 (Ch.).
E.R.A., 5th Cl., Herbert Alfred Harris, O.N. M6218 (Po.).
Sto. P.O. Thomas Haw, O.N. 306429 (Po.).
Sto., 1st Cl., James Lewis Hayman, O.N. K35627 (Dev.).
P.O. Herbert Jackson, O.N. 213767 (Ch.).
A.B. Richard Ellis Makey, O.N. 219228 (Po.).
S.B.S. Arthur Ernest Page, O.N. M960 (Ch.).
Ch. Sto. Alfred Edward Sage, O.N. 281683 (Ch.).
Sto., 1st Cl., Joseph Smith, O.N. K24538 (Dev.).
E.R.A., 4th Cl., Alan Thomas, O.N. M16493 (Dev.).
P.O. Thomas Wood, O.N. 171903 (Ch.)

The next month, the battered and beaten but still afloat Vindictive had one more mission. Two hundred tons of cement was put into her after magazines and upper bunkers on both sides– which was all her draught would permit her to carry– and she was sunk as a blockship in the approaches to Ostend Harbor on 10 May 1918.

THE SECOND OSTEND RAID, MAY 1918 (Q 24025) Wrecked deck of HMS Vindictive in the Ostend Harbour, May 1918. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

THE SECOND OSTEND RAID, MAY 1918 (Q 24031) Wrecked HMS Vindictive in the Ostend Harbour, May 1918. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

After the war, she was raised and broken up in 1920, with her bow saved and put on public display at Ostend, where it remains today.

Two of her sisters, Furious and Arrogant, was broken up just after her– though they had seen no action during the war. As for Vindictive‘s skipper, Carpenter, he went on to command a series of capital ships before moving to the retired list as a Rear Admiral in 1929, though he did return to service in WWII to command a Home Guard district. All good men must do their part, you know. His VC is in the IWM.

A number of relics from Vindictive, to include her shot-up binnacle, a rum draw with a shrapnel wound, her J Morriss & Sons Ltd telescopic flamethrower, one of her 7.5cm howitzers, her voice tube, a piece of concrete from the Mole found on her deck after she returned to Dover and portions of her splinter mattresses are all in the collections of the IWM.

Lewis machine gun used by RM Sgt Norman Augustus Finch, VC, MSM during the Raid on Zeebrugge, 1918 from the foretop of HMS Vindictive

The same gun is now in the Royal Marines Museum’s collection

She is, of course, also remembered in maritime art such as the piece at the beginning of the post and this one on display at the Britannia Royal Naval College by Charles De Lacey, showing HMS ‘Vindictive’ at Zeebrugge, 23 April 1918, on loan from the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.

This week, the RN and RMs celebrated the 100th anniversary of the great raid. On Saturday, Belgium held a special service attended by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines with HRH The Princess Royal representing Her Majesty the Queen. A similar event was held in Dover on Monday with dignitaries from Belgium and Germany as well as the Senior Service.

HMS Order No 77 – HMS Vindictive [Port] (Art.IWM DAZ 0056 2) whole: a schematic drawing for Dazzle camouflage, featuring a hand-drawn and hand-painted port view of a warship. Three superstructure details are placed to the left of the main design. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source:

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USS Iowa explosion

Mitten im Frieden erschütterte am 19. April 1989 eine gigantische Explosion die USS Iowa. Das riesige Schlachtschiff wurde noch im Zweiten Weltkrieg gebaut und von US Präsident Ronald Reagan.. A news report about the USS Iowa gun turret explosion in 1989. On 19 April 1989, the Number Two 16-inch gun turret of the United States Navy battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) exploded. The explosion in.. Navy pallbearers carry the remains of one of the 47 crew members killed in an explosion aboard the battleship USS IOWA (BB-61). The explosion occurred in the No. 2 16-inch gun turret as the IOWA.. On 19 April 1989 a rapid series of three explosions within turret II aboard USS IOWA (BB 61) resulted in the instantaneous deaths of 47 American Sailors. A Judge Advocate General's Manual investigation was convened immediately. Every conceivable source of ignition and every aspect of USS IOWA's condition and shipboard routine that might have bearing on the incident were evaluated: procedures, training, safety, manning, and personal conduct. Since the primary explosion was determined.

USS Iowa: Ließ ein Matrose das größte US-Schlachtschiff

  1. The deadly blast aboard the Iowa marked the first explosion in a battleship turret since 1943, when 43 sailors aboard the USS Mississippi were killed, the Government Accountability Office later.
  2. Die USSIowa (BB-61) war ein Schlachtschiff der United States Navy und Typschiff der Iowa-Klasse
  3. 30 years after an Explosion in Turret II of the Battleship Iowa we remember their sacrifice
  4. The deadly blast aboard the Iowa marked the first explosion in a battleship turret since 1943, when 43 sailors aboard the USS Mississippi were killed, the Government Accountability Office later..
  5. g is the home of F.E. Warren AFB, part of the USAF's Global Strike. 2. Kadena Air Base's haunted house Building 2283 on Kadena is a single family home for field-grade.

USS Iowa Gun Turret Explosion (1989) Military

WASHINGTON -- Following is the final, alphabetized list with names and hometowns of sailors killed in the explosion aboard the USS Iowa: -Tung Thanh Adams, fire controlman 3rd class, Alexandria, Va On April 19, 1989, an explosion aboard the battleship claimed the lives of 47 crewmen USS ABSD-2 repairing the USS Iowa in early 1945 at Manus, Admiralty Islands On 18 December, the ships of TF 38 unexpectedly found themselves in a fight for their lives when Typhoon Cobra overtook the force—7 fleet carriers, 6 light carriers, 8 battleships, 15 cruisers, and about 50 destroyers—during their attempt to refuel at sea

Remembering the USS Iowa explosion and aftermat

  • The USS Iowa turret explosion occurred in the Number Two 16-inch gun turret of the United States Navy battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) on 19 April 1989. The explosion in the center gun room killed 47 of the turret's crewmen and severely damaged the gun turret itself. Two major investigations were undertaken, one by the Navy and then one by the General Accounting Office (GAO) an
  • U.S.S. Iowa -. Explosion Introduction Introduction On April 19, 1989, an explosion occurred on the battleship USS IOWA in the open breech of a 16-in. gun, killing 47 crew members. In its investigation of the explosion, the US Navy (USN) concluded there was evidence of foreign materia
  • USS Iowa Explosion: Sandia National Laboratories' Final Technical Report (PDF). The Office of the Distributor. Government Accountability Office (GAO) (January 1991). Battleships, issues arising from the explosion aboard the USS Iowa (PDF). The Office of the Distributor. Conahan, Frank C. (1990)
  • A Glimpse of Hell is a 2001 American-Canadian made-for-television drama film directed by Mikael Salomon.It premiered in the United States on FX on March 18, 2001. It was filmed in Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada and stars James Caan, Robert Sean Leonard, and Daniel Roebuck.The film is based on the 1999 book A Glimpse of Hell: The Explosion on the USS Iowa and Its Cover-Up by Charles C. Thompson II.

H-029-4 USS Iowa Turret Explosion - United States Nav

USS Iowa Mystery Solved - YouTube. Location for a missing piece of history on the USS Iowa has been found. Location for a missing piece of history on the USS Iowa has been found In April 1989, a turret on the USS Iowa exploded, killing almost 50 people on board. Years later, a survivor remembers the recovery efforts of that day Der größte Unfall an Bord eines Schiffes der Iowa-Klasse ereignete sich 1989 an Bord der USS Iowa, als eine Explosion Turm 2 erschütterte, wobei 47 Seeleute umkamen. Die Ursache ist ungeklärt ursprünglich wurde ein Selbstmordattentat eines Matrosen vermutet, heute wird angenommen, dass elektrostatische Energie Schießpulver entzündet hatte. Da das Schiff kurze Zeit später außer Dienst. L'USS Iowa (BB-61) est le bâtiment tête de série de sa classe de cuirassés et le quatrième dans l'United States Navy à être nommé en l'honneur du 29 e État.En raison de l'annulation de la construction des cuirassés de la classe Montana, l'Iowa est le dernier bâtiment tête de série d'une classe de cuirassés des États-Unis. Il est par ailleurs le seul bâtiment de sa classe à. USS Iowa, lead ship of a class of 45,000-ton battleships, was built at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York. Commissioned in February 1943, she spent h..

Video: Der große Knüppel der USA - die Schlachtschiffe der Iowa

USS Iowa turret explosion is a featured article it (or a previous version of it) has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community. Even so, if you can update or improve it, please do so. USS Iowa turret explosion is part of the Iowa class battleships series, a featured topic L'explosion de la tourelle numéro 2 de l'USS Iowa s'est produite le 19 avril 1989 près de Porto Rico.Elle a tué 47 membres d'équipage dans la tourelle n o 2 de 406 mm du cuirassé USS Iowa (BB-61) de l'United States Navy, et endommagé gravement celle-ci.. Investigations et conclusions. La première enquête, menée par la Marine américaine, a conclu que l'explosion a été. USS Iowa Turret Explosion - Background - Gunnery Training and Experiments Gunnery Training and Experiments A week after taking command, Moosally and his executive officer, Mike Fahey, canceled a planned $1 million repair package for Iowa 's main gun batteries, including repairs to the main gun turrets' lighting, electrical, powder hoists, and hydraulic systems—75 detailed deficiencies in all 4 PUNISHED LIGHTLY IN USS IOWA PROBE. By Molly Moore and. George C. Wilson. October 5, 1989 The Navy and the FBI spent almost five months investigating the explosion, which devastated the No. A Senate Committee requested assistance from Sandia in determining the adequacy of the investigation of the incident aboard the USS IOWA. This currently unexplained explosion occurred in Turret 2 of the battleship on April 19, 1989, killing 47 crewmen. The investigation included material characterization of debris found after the explosion, ignition experiments to characterize the propellant.

Nov 17, 2018 - USS Iowa Battleship 16 inch guns accident in 1989Turret #2 Exploded & killed 47 Sailors. April 19th, 1989.On 19 April 1989, an explosion of undetermined cau.. High explosive shells being loaded aboard Iowa before our deployment at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. The shells weighed between 1,900 and 2,200 pounds, depending on purpose . 2 aboard USS Iowa is of paint and grease. One cannot smell the death. Only an experienced eye can see it, can point out the tell-tale wounds still in.

The Day a U.S. Navy Battleship Exploded (What Happened ..

USS Iowa Turret Explosion - First Navy Investigation - Preliminary. Preliminary. Several hours after the explosion, Admiral Carlisle Trost, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) issued a moratorium on the firing of all 16-inch guns. Vice Admiral Joseph S. Donnell, commander of Surface Forces Atlantic, appointed Commodore Richard Milligan to conduct an informal one-officer investigation into the. USS IOWA Broadside Explosion Magnet . $6.99. Add to Cart. USS IOWA At Sea Magnet . $5.99. Add to Cart. USS IOWA BB-61 Panoramic USA Flag Magnet . $6.99. Add to Cart. IOWA Class Fast Battleship Tranbanger Magnet . $5.99. Add to Cart. USS IOWA BB-61 D Magnet . $6.99. A photo taken from the bridge captures the explosion of the No. 2 16-inch gun turret aboard the battleship USS Iowa on April 19, 1989. It was later determined that 47 sailors were killed by the blast USS Iowa/ Explosion #326604. CBS Evening News for Saturday, Apr 22, 1989 View other clips in this broadcast → Material supplied by VTNA may be used for educational analysis or research only. Any editing, reproduction, publication, rebroadcast, public showing or public display may be prohibited by copyright laws. (Studio: Bob Schieffer) Report introduced. (DC: Eric Engberg) Explosion in gun.

USS Iowa (BB-61) - Wikipedi

  • He boarded the Iowa as a seaman, and left the USS Iowa on December 1, 1945 a radioman first class, division petty officer. Those years on the Iowa were a major part of his life, and when he wrote his life story in the 1990s, he shared many of his experiences aboard the ship. The one part that surprised me the most was of taking care of the POWs on the ship, following the surrender of Japan.
  • USS Iowa/ Explosion #326587. CBS Evening News for Friday, Apr 21, 1989 View other clips in this broadcast → Material supplied by VTNA may be used for educational analysis or research only. Any editing, reproduction, publication, rebroadcast, public showing or public display may be prohibited by copyright laws. (Studio: Dan Rather) Reports introd. (DC: Ron Allen) Explosion aboard USS Iowa.
  • The crew members in the upper chambers of the massive gun turret aboard the USS Iowa were killed by the explosion and fire while sailors working several levels below suffocated when the blast sucked all the oxygen from their chambers, Navy officials said Friday. The blast, which killed 47 men on five of the six levels inside the No. 2 gun turret, left two fully loaded gun barrels in the same.
  • Locator Map of Iowa for websites, presentations and more. Easy adjustment. Variants of using a map locator: - Real-Estate websites - Quick access to contact organization data, having affiliated network in California With this fully-clickable map you will be able to improve navigation and provide visitors with a better and faster means of accessing information, as well as improve the way you.
  • The Iowa-class ships were reactivated for service once again, and the USS Iowa was used in the Persian Gulf for escort duties, providing watch over Kuwaiti tankers under threat. During a gunnery exercise observed in April of 1989, the USS Iowa suffered a catastrophic explosion in her number two turret (second forward mounting) when five powder bags of the center gun ignited
  • The House Banking Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization heard testimony on the final report from the General Accounting Office on the explosion aboard the USSIowa. Giving testimony were.
  • The two suffered by USS Mississippi in 1924 and 1943 (same turret) bore an especially eerie similarity to the Iowa explosion (center gun of Turret 2), with the exception that they were hot guns (recently fired). For that reason, the explosions were blamed at the time on smoldering residue in the gun breach. This was later a subject of some controversy during the Iowa investigation, when Sandia.

On April 19, 1989, Turret Two aboard the recommissioned battleship USS Iowa exploded, killing 47 men. In A Glimpse of Hell, former naval officer, newspaper reporter, and 60 Minutes producer Charles Thompson has written an authoritative exposé of the United States Navy high command's consistent efforts to manipulate the evidence of that disaster and slander deceased seaman Clayton Hartwig USS Iowa turret explosion Debris and smoke fly through the air as USS Iowa's Turret Two's center gun explodes Date: 19 April 1989 Time: 09:53 local time Location: Caribbean Sea, off Puerto Rico Cause: Undetermined (U.S. Navy inquiry), Overramming of powder bags (Sandia Labs inquiry) Deaths: 47 Inquiries: U.S. Navy, GAO, and Sandia National Laboratories On 19 April 1989, the Number Two 16-inch.

Remembering the Iowa Turret Explosion - YouTub

  • 30th Anniversary of the USS Iowa Turret Explosion, 19 April 1989 On 19 April 1989, while conducting an exercise main battery gun shoot in the North Puerto Rico Operations Area, the re-commissioned World War II battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) suffered an explosion, followed by two more, in the center gun of her Number 2 16-inch gun turret that killed all 47 crewmen in the turret. The subsequent.
  • USS Iowa Turrett 2 Explosion. On Wednesday, April 19, 1989, 47 sailors were killed in an explosion and fire aboard the battleship USS Iowa about 300 miles northeast of Puerto Rico. The explosion occurred at 9:55am in turret two, as the center gun was being loaded. The ship was participating in firing exercises during maneuvers with the US Second Fleet. Cemetery Visibility: Public Private. 48.
  • Directed by Mikael Salomon. With James Caan, Robert Sean Leonard, Daniel Roebuck, Jamie Harrold. A Navy officer tries to set the record straight, after the Navy blames a 1989 explosion aboard the U.S.S. Iowa on a homosexual affair between two sailors

USS Iowa suffered an accidental turret explosion at 0955 hours, killing 47. It was the US Navy's worst loss of life during peace time. It was the US Navy's worst loss of life during peace time. 26 Oct 199 On the morning of April 19, 1989 - 27 years ago today - a horrific explosion and fire ripped through No. 2 gun turret of the Norfolk-based battleship USS Iowa USS Iowa BB61 Iowa Explosion 1989 Lt.Cdr. C.F. Jacobs, formerly a leading magazine illustrative photographer, with his F-16 camera aboard the USS Iowa (BB-61). Crew members man the rails aboard the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) as the ship returns to home port following an explosion which killed 47 crew members. The explosion occurred in the No.2 16-inch gun turret as the Iowa was. The USS Iowa was a state-of-the-art battleship that was a vital part of Naval operations from 1943-1993. It now is the main attraction at The Pacific Battleship Center and operates as a battleship museum. It is open to the public though be prepared to use narrow, steep stairs meant for young people serving their country. This battleship has the largest guns (16″/50 caliber) on a U.S. Navy.

Battleship USS Iowa dropping anchor (possibly San Francisco Bay). I know I'd be one of those sailors on the bow, watching this -- and every other operation I could see! Must remember there are many young sailors aboard Navy ships that have never seen much of anything beyond their hometown. That's the way it was with my dad: He was barely 17, from a remote, rural Florida town, when he enlisted. The authors record the contributions of dentistry to the identification of the crew members who were in one of the most significant peacetime military accidents in U.S. Navy history-the April 1989 explosion in a gun turret on the battleship USS Iowa and the deaths of 47 U.S. Navy personnel. Dental identification was the primary means of identification for most because a very high percentage of. Uss Iowa Explosion, free uss iowa explosion software downloads, Page 3

The USS Iowa (BB-61) was the lead ship in the United States Navy's last, and most battle-worthy, and coverage of the tragic 1989 turret explosion that killed forty-seven sailors. The carefully researched photos, many of which have never before been published, are reproduced in remarkable clarity, and coupled with descriptive and informative captions, this book puts the reader on the deck. .7 projectiles, neither of which caused significant damage March 30: In support of Task group 58, air strikes against Palau and Woleai islands, followed by further strikes against Hollandia, Aitape and Wake Islands April 22: Supporting Army landing at Aitape, Tanahmerah and Humbolt Bays May 1: Bombardment of airfield. The Senate Armed Services Comittee received testimony from the General Accounting Office and the Sandia Laboratory on the Navy investigation into the explosion aboard the USS Iowa USS Iowa turret explosion . NoOneFamous. 14K 1,284 1. NoOneFamous. 14K 1,284 1. Post May 27, 2008 #1 2008-05-27T21:31. What was cause determined to be? Mishandling of powder or a suicide? Nightwatch2. 11K 88 1. Nightwatch2. 11K 88 1. Post May 27, 2008 #2 2008-05-27T22:07. as I recall, it was mishandling of the powder. The key piece was the over-ram which tore open a bag. I don't recall the.

Gunner`s Mate Kendall Truitt was in the belly of the USS Iowa`s gun turret No. 2 when he heard an explosion that sounded louder than gunfire. Truitt and 10 other men in his compartment frantically. The USS Iowa has long endured as one of the most recognizable symbols of the United States Navy. This massive vessel served proudly in WWII and the Korean War, even having an entire class of battleships named after it. The USS Iowa has a great legacy, but it also had a horrible tragedy that claimed the lives of many innocents. (Photo: Official U.S. Navy Photograph, National Archives collection.

USS Iowa turret explosion will forever be associated with this grand ship and it will be part of her history till the end of her days. On 19 April 1989, the Number Two 16-inch gun turret of the United States Navy battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) exploded. The explosion in the center gun room killed 47 of the turret's crewmen and severely damaged the gun turret itself. We will not go into all the. Friction, the cause initially considered for the explosions aboard the USS Iowa this year, was also thought by Navy gun experts to be a possible cause of a 1943 explosion aboard the battleship USS. Die USS Iowa, 1943 vom Stapel gelaufen, überstand Gefechte im Pazifik und eine Explosion in einem ihrer Geschütztürme. 47 Seeleute kamen damals ums Leben Die USS Iowa (BB-61) war ein Schlachtschiff der United States Navy und Typschiff der Iowa-Klasse.Sie wurde 1943 in Dienst gestellt und fuhr noch im selben Jahr im Atlantischen Ozean Einsätze im Zweiten Weltkrieg. 1944 wechselte sie in den Pazifik und nahm am Pazifikkrieg teil, wo sie die Luftverteidigung für Flugzeugträger übernahm und später die japanischen Hauptinseln beschoss uss iowa, Schiff, uns Marineschiff, Mündungsblitz, Luftdruck, große Waffen, Explosion, Militär-, sprengen Public Domai

In 1989, a U.S. Navy's 16-Inch Battleship 'Gun' Exploded ..

Uss Iowa Turret Explosion April 19,1981. The turner that exploded was the 16 inch naval gun. The explosion of the gun kills 47 people.

First Navy Investigation April 20 1981. The US Navy conducts their first investigation and comes to a conclusion that the explosion was caused by a crewman named Clayton Hartwig.

The Navy's investigation of the USS Iowa turret explosion

Die Explosion wurde wahrscheinlich durch falsch gelagerte Treibladungen ausgelöst, aber anfangs wurde einer der getöteten Matrosen verantwortlich gemacht. 1990 wurde sie erneut außer Dienst gestellt. 2012 wurde sie Museumsschiff in San Pedro, Los Angeles. Die USS Iowa habe ich in San Pedro, Los Angeles, am 14. Januar 2017 fotografiert: Teil The USS Iowa was decommissioned the year following the explosion and the turret was never put back into service. She is currently a museum ship in Los Angeles, CA. President Roosevelt took a bath here . The USS Iowa is a ship rich in history. She took part in many battles and shore bombardments in WWII and the Korean War. She served as Admiral Willis Lee's and Admiral Halsey's flagship. That whole mesas cqame about during the investiation because of Hartwigs sister. It seems he had a reciprocal lifeinsurence deal with his buddy. Whe Uss iowa accident. L' explosion de la tourelle numéro 2 de l'USS Iowa s'est produite le 19 avril 1989 près de Porto Rico. Elle a tué 47 membres d'équipage dans la tourelle no 2 de 406 mm du cuirassé USS Iowa (BB-61) de l' United States Navy, et endommagé gravement celle-ci Navy pallbearers carry the remains of one of the 47 crew members killed in an explosion aboard the battleship USS.

This is part 3 of a series on the explosion on the USS Iowa on April 19, 1989 that killed 47 men in turret 2 of the battleship. In this part I will cover the Navy's shoddy investigation, which in. Capt. Larry Seaquist, USN (Ret.), former commanding officer, USS Iowa Explosion Aboard the Iowa is an important story because it places on the public record some exceptionally significant facts about the Iowa explosion and key parts of the subsequent investigations. Not only does Schwoebel demonstrate the flaws in the navy's investigation, but he presents with all but mathematical certainty. USS Iowa/ Explosion #128044. ABC Evening News for Thursday, Apr 19, 1990 View other clips in this broadcast → Material supplied by VTNA may be used for educational analysis or research only. Any editing, reproduction, publication, rebroadcast, public showing or public display may be prohibited by copyright laws. (Studio: Peter Jennings) Report introduced. (Norfolk: Bob Zelnick) Unsolved.

Battleship USS Iowa with crew on deck after accidental gun turret explosion killing 47 sailors arriving at Norfolk Naval Station. Erstklassige Nachrichtenbilder in hoher Auflösung bei Getty Image USS Iowa/ Explosion #326770 CBS Evening News for Sunday, Apr 30, 1989 View other clips in this broadcast → (Studio: Connie Chung) Report of evidence of possible misfiring of gun on USS Iowa just before explosion that killed 47 crewmen detailed photos shown

Final list of names, hometowns of USS Iowa fatalities

On April 16, 1989 there was an explosion in a gun turret on the U.S.S. Iowa. 47 men were killed. This need not have happened. It was a foreseeable result of lack of training and the running of un.. USS Iowa (BB 61) Crew List. The table below contains the names of sailors who served aboard the USS Iowa (BB 61). Please keep in mind that this list does only include records of people who submitted their information for publication on this website. If you also served aboard and you remember one of the people below you can click on the name to. the grey ghost creepy haunted battleship uss iowa JOIN MY MOVEMENT BY USING THE HASHTAG #PARAMANIAC / #PARAMANIACS GRAB YOURSELF SOME OF MY PARANORMAL TYLER MERCH AT MY MERCH STORE HERE: https://shop.

Remembering the USS Iowa explosion, 29 years later - YouTub

USS Iowa fires a full broadside of nine 16 inch (406 mm)/50-caliber and six 5-inch (127 mm)/38-caliber guns during a target exercise. Note concussion effects on the water surface, and 16-inch (406 mm) gun barrels in varying degrees of elevation. The primary armament of an Iowa-class battleship consisted of nine breech-loading 16 inch (406 mm)/50-caliber Mark 7 naval guns, which were housed in. File:USS Iowa BB61 Iowa Explosion 1989.jpg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search. File File history File usage on Commons File usage on other wikis Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixels. Other resolutions: 320 × 226 pixels | 640 × 453 pixels | 1,024 × 725 pixels | 1,280 × 906 pixels | 3,000 × 2,123 pixels. Original file ‎ (3,000. Battleship USS Iowa Museum 250 S. Harbor Blvd Los Angeles (San Pedro), CA 90731 p: 877-446-9261 p: 310-971-4462. Hours Open Daily, 10a - 5p. The museum is operated by Pacific Battleship Center, a 501c3 non-profit organization solely supported by admissions, donations, event space rentals, and gift shop. We do not receive government funding. USS Iowa/ Explosion #121615. ABC Evening News for Wednesday, Apr 19, 1989 View other clips in this broadcast → Material supplied by VTNA may be used for educational analysis or research only. Any editing, reproduction, publication, rebroadcast, public showing or public display may be prohibited by copyright laws. (Studio: Peter Jennings ) Report introduced. (DC: John McWethy) Explosion.

Navy Secretary H. Laurence Garrett III has ordered a halt to repairs to the USS Iowa's gun turret No. 2, devastated in an explosion last April, until the battleship's future is determined Media in category Iowa Turret Explosion The following 13 files are in this category, out of 13 total explosion of the No. 2 16-inch gun turret aboard the battleship USS IOWA (BB-61). It was later determined that 47 sailors were killed by the blast, which occurred as the IOWA was conducting routine gunnery exercises 330 miles northeast of Puerto Rico. explosion of the No. 2 16-inch gun turret aboard the battleship USS IOWA (BB-61)

Crew members man the rails aboard the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) as the ship returns to home port following an explosion which killed 47 crew members. The explosion occurred in the No.2 16-inch gun turret as the Iowa was conducting routine gunnery exercises approximately 300 miles northeast of Puerto Rico on April 19th. Behind them the damaged turret still faces to the starboard and the gun. Sep 27, 2016 - USS Iowa turret explosion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Uss Iowa sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Uss Iowa in höchster Qualität Within 8 minutes from the explosion the magazines of No. 2 turret were flooded. Iowa was forced to end the exercise and return to base in Norfolk. On the way, in Puerto Rico, the bodies of the crew members killed in the explosion were disembarked. The investigation started immediately upon her arrival at the base. The necessary repairs were also commenced. On their completion the ship was.

The Battleship USS Iowa Mysterious Exploded 30 Years Ag

USS Iowa (BB-61) is a retired battleship, the lead ship of its class, and the fourth in the United States Navy to be named after the state of Iowa.Owing to the cancellation of the Montana-class battleships, Iowa is the last lead ship of any class of United States battleships and was the only ship of its class to have served in the Atlantic Ocean during World War II It's been 30 years since an explosion in gun turret two on the USS Iowa killed 47 sailors in 1989 In the mid-1980s, times were great for the USS Iowa-class battleships. In addition to USS Iowa, USS New Jersey (BB-62), USS Missouri (BB-63), and USS Wisconsin (BB-64) were being recommissione USS Iowa began her service with a mission to hunt down the German Battleship Tirpitz. Unsuccessful in locating Tirpitz, Iowa returned to the United States to be fitted out with a bathtub and elevator for President Roosevelt. Early in the morning on November 11, 1943, the President was transferred from the USS Potomac to Iowa for his trip to Casablanca for the Teheran Conference. In addition to.

USS Iowa turret explosion Military Wiki Fando

Iowa-Klasse, Baureihe amerikanischer Schlachtschiffe Iowa River, Nebenfluss des Mississippi-River in Iowa USS Iowa (BB-61), amerikanisches Schlachtschiff Siehe auch: Iowa Gambling Task Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe. Zuletzt bearbeitet am 31. Januar 2016 um 19:19. Der Inhalt ist verfügbar unter CC BY-SA 3.0, sofern. USS Iowa BB61 Iowa Explosion 1989 The Historic Battleship, USS IOWA, (BB-61), Preserved As A Museum In San Pedro At The Port Of Los Angeles, California, USA. Crew members man the rails aboard the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) as the ship returns to home port following an explosion which killed 47 crew members. The explosion occurred in the No.2 16-inch gun turret as the Iowa was. Downloade dieses freie Bild zum Thema Uss Iowa Schiff Uns Marineschiff aus Pixabays umfangreicher Sammlung an Public Domain Bildern und Videos

Flotsam and Jetsam

In 1786, Thomas Jefferson wrote to William Carmichael regarding Tripoli’s demand for extortion tribute payment, 1786:

“Mr. Adams and I had conferences with a Tripoline ambassador, named Abdrahaman. He asked us thirty thousand guineas for a peace with his court.”

When Jefferson asked the Muslim Ambassador what the new country of America had done to offend them, he reported to John Jay, March 28, 1786:

“The ambassador answered us that it was founded on the laws of the prophet, it was written in their Qur’an,

that all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave and that every mussulman (Muslim) who was slain in this warfare was sure to go to paradise.

He said, also, that the man who was the first to board a vessel had one slave over and above his share, and that when they sprang to the deck of an enemy’s ship, every sailor held a dagger in each hand and a third in his mouth which usually struck such terror into the foe that they cried out for quarter at once.”

Jefferson read the Qur’an, not out of admiration or devotion, but to understand why Muslims were attacking Americans unprovoked.

The word Islam means submission to Allah, and a Muslim is one who has submitted to Allah.

Islam is a religion of peace, it is just that the Islamic definition of “peace” is different.

To someone raised in Western Civilization, “peace” is achieved when different groups get along.

In Islam, “peace” is when everyone is submitted to Allah.

Essentially, to a fundamental Muslim, “world peace” means “world Islam.”

This is similar to what Lincoln stated at the Sanitary Fair, Baltimore, Maryland, April 18, 1864:

“We all declare for liberty but in using the same word we do not all mean the same thing.”

A moderate Muslim believes the world will submit to Allah later,maybe in the distant future or at the end of the world, and since it is so far off, they are not preoccupied with it and are non-violent.

A fundamentalist or “Islamist” Muslimbelieves the world is supposed to submit to Allah now, and they are excited to help make it happen.

This is referred to as becoming radicalized.

The dilemma for Western Civilization is, the more it shows itself welcoming and tolerant, the more a percentage of moderate Muslims begin to rethink that maybe the world is actually submitting to Allah now rather than later.

They gradually gravitate from the future non-violent mindset into the radicalized now mindset.

In other words, the nicer the West is, the more violent fundamental Islamists become.

This reflects an Islamist attitude, that when your enemy is strong, retreat when your enemy is weak, attack.

Fear in the heart of the enemy is a sign Allah wants you to attack them.

Psychologist Nicolai Sennels explained (Hapeles Orthodox Jewish Newspaper, July 5, 2016):

“Muslims instinctively see our lack of reaction as fear, it is an invitation to attack.”

Another word which has a different definition is the word “innocent.”

In Islam, it is wrong to kill the innocent, but the definition of innocent is a faithful follower of the way of Allah.

Those who reject fundamental Islam are not faithful followers, therefore they are not innocent:

“Allah loveth not those who reject Faith” (Sura 3:32)
“Be ruthless to the infidels” (Sura 48:29)
“Make war on the infidels (Sura 9:123 66:9)
“Fight those who believe not in Allah” (Sura 9:29)
“Kill the disbelievers wherever we find them” (Sura 2:191).

Saying it is wrong to kill the innocent is code for saying it is wrong to kill faithful Muslims.

Fundamental Muslims accuse moderate Muslims of being unfaithful — of backsliding from the way of Allah, having left following the example of Mohammed and the Rightly Guided Caliphs.

It is therefore justified to kill them along with non-Muslims.

Lawrence of Arabia wrote in Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 1922:

“Wahhabis, followers of a fanatical Moslem heresy, had imposed their strict rules … Everything was forcibly pious or forcibly puritanical.”

Ronald Reagan wrote in his autobiography, An American Life (Simon & Schuster, 1990, p. 409),

“Radical fundamentalist sects … have institutionalized murder and terrorism in the name of God, promising followers instant entry into paradise if they die for their faith or kill an enemy who challenges it.

… Twice in recent years, America has lost loyal allies in the Middle East, the shah of Iran and Anwar Sadat, at the hands of these fanatics…”

“I don’t think you can overstate the importance that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism will have to the rest of the world in the century ahead — especially if, as seems possible, its most fanatical elements get their hands on nuclear and chemical weapons and the means to deliver them against their enemies.”

On August 8, 1974, Richard Nixon warned of the Middle East: “… that the cradle of civilization will not become its grave.”

In 1793, Muslim Barbary pirates captured and plundered the U.S. cargo ship Polly, imprisoning the crew. The pirate captain justified his brutal treatment of the Americans:

“… for your history and superstition in believing in a man who was crucified by the Jews and disregarding the true doctrine of God’s last and greatest prophet, Mohammed.”

In 1795, Muslim Barbary Pirates of Algiers captured 115 American sailors. The United States was forced to pay nearly a million dollars in ransom.

At one point, nearly 20 percent of the U.S. Federal budget was used to make extortion tribute payments to the Muslim pirates.

A Treaty of Tripoli in 1798 failed.

Christopher Hitchens wrote in his article “Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates”:

“Of course, those secularists like myself who like to cite this treaty must concede that its conciliatory language was part of America’s attempt to come to terms with Barbary demands.”

Immediately after Jefferson became President in 1801, Barbary pirates demanded $225,000, plus an annual tribute of $25,000.

When Jefferson refused, the Pasha (Lord) of Tripoli declared war — the first war the U.S. was in after becoming a nation.

Jefferson sent U.S. frigates to the Mediterranean to protect American shipping.

Get the book What Every American Needs to Know About the Qur’an-A History of Islam and the United States

In his First Annual Message, December 8, 1801, Thomas Jefferson stated:

“Tripoli, the least considerable of the Barbary States, had come forward with demands unfounded either in right or in compact, and had permitted itself to (declare) war on our failure to comply before a given day.

The style of the demand admitted but one answer. I sent a small squadron of frigates into the Mediterranean, with assurances to that power of our sincere desire to remain in peace, but with orders to protect our commerce against the threatened attack …

The Bey (lord) had already declared war. His cruisers were out. Two had arrived at Gibraltar. Our commerce in the Mediterranean was blockaded and that of the Atlantic in peril …”

“The arrival of our squadron dispelled the danger.

One of the Tripolitan cruisers having fallen in with and engaged the small schooner Enterprise, commanded by Lieutenant Sterret, which had gone as a tender to our larger vessels, was captured, after a heavy slaughter of her men, without the loss of a single one on our part.

The bravery exhibited by our citizens on that element will, I trust, be a testimony to the world.”

On December 29, 1803, the new 36-gun USS Philadelphia ran aground on Morocco’s shallow coast. Muslims surrounded and captured Captain William Bainbridge and his 307 man crew for 18 months.

To prevent this ship from being used by Muslim pirates, Lieut. Stephen Decatur, in what was described as the “most bold and daring act of the age,” sailed his ship, Intrepid, on February 16, 1804, into the Muslim pirate harbor and set the captured USS Philadelphia ablaze.

Jefferson sent the Navy and Marines to capture Tripoli, led by Commodores Edward Preble, John Rogers and Captain William Eaton.

The Pasha was forced to make peace on U.S. terms.

Frederick Leiner wrote in The End of the Barbary Terror-America’s 1815 War Against the Pirates of North Africa (Oxford University Press):

“Commodore Stephen Decatur and diplomat William Shaler withdrew to consult in private … The Algerians were believed to be masters of duplicity, willing to make agreements and break them as they found convenient.”

The annotated John Quincy Adams-A Bibliography, compiled by Lynn H. Parsons (Westport, CT, 1993, p. 41, entry #194), contains “Unsigned essays dealing with the Russo-Turkish War and on Greece,” published in The American Annual Register for 1827-28-29 (NY: 1830):

“Our gallant Commodore Stephen Decatur had chastised the pirate of Algiers … The Dey (Omar Bashaw) … disdained to conceal his intentions

‘My power,’ said he, ‘has been wrested from my hands draw ye the treaty at your pleasure, and I will sign it but beware of the moment, when I shall recover my power, for with that moment, your treaty shall be waste paper.'”

The First Barbary War, 1801-1805, was America’s first war after the Revolution.

The Second Barbary War, 1815, gave rise to the Marine Anthem:

“From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli.”

The curved Marine sword is from the confiscated Muslim scimitars, called “mamluke” swords.

Marines were called “leathernecks” for the wide leather straps worn around their necks to prevent being beheaded, as Sura 47:4, states: “When you meet the infidel in the battlefield, strike off their heads.”

Francis Scott Key, nine years before he wrote the Star-Spangled Banner, wrote a song to the same tune to commemorate the victory over the Muslim Barbary Pirates, titled “When the Warrior Returns from the Battle Afar,” published in Boston’s Independent Chronicle, Dec. 30, 1805:

In conflict resistless each toil they endur’d
Till their foes shrunk dismay’d from the war’s desolation:
And pale beamed the Crescent, its splendor obscur’d
By the light of the Star-Spangled Flag of our nation.
Where each flaming star gleamed a meteor of war,
And the turban’d head bowed to the terrible glare.
Then mixt with the olive the laurel shall wave
And form a bright wreath for the brow of the brave.

The Battle of Dogger Bank 24 January 1915

On 23 January 1915 the British Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe had 18 dreadnoughts ready at Scapa Flow and eight King Edward VII class pre-dreadnoughts and five battlecruisers at Rosyth in the Firth of Forth. The battlecruisers had been moved there from Cromarty after the German raid on the north east coast on 16 December 1914 so that they could respond more quickly to future attacks.

Jellicoe thought that his margin over the German High Seas Fleet was too narrow. It had 17 dreadnoughts, 22 pre-dreadnoughts and four battlecruisers. There were other British pre-dreadnoughts on the Channel Fleet, but these were not under his command.[1]

Jellicoe always counted the number of ships that he had actually available, excluding those under repair or refit or newly built ones that we not fully worked up. He assumed that the Germans would not come out unless they were at full strength, which proved not to be the case.

The British battlecruisers, commanded by Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty, had recently carried out a sweep into the Helgoland Bight, but had not encountered the enemy. They returned to base on 20 January 1915.

The Germans planned an operation of their own for 23 January. The battlecruisers of Admiral Franz Hipper’s 1st Scouting Group of three battlecruisers and the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher, the four light cruisers of the 2nd Scouting Group and two flotillas with a total of 18 torpedo boats would carry out a reconnaissance towards Dogger Bank. The Germans called their destroyers as torpedo boats.

Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, commander of the High Seas Fleet, wrote in an after action report that:

‘The intention was to make an extended destroyer advance with cruiser support, in order to clear the course to the Dogger Bank of trawlers employed in enemy service, and, if fortune were favourable, to surprise light forces on patrol.’[2]

He was reluctant to carry out such an operation at a time when the rest of the High Seas Fleet was not in a state of preparedness to support it. However, he agreed because he assumed that the Grand Fleet would be in port coaling, as it had carried out a sweep of the North Sea on 19 January.

The Germans had begun to realise that the British had accurate intelligence on their movements, but did not suspect that it came from reading coded German signals. They believed instead that trawlers or possibly dockyard spies were responsible.[3] A 1922 German analysis of the battle states that it the war it had then ‘only recently transpired’ that the Russians had recovered the code books of the German light cruiser Magdeburg in August 1914 and shared them with their allies.[4]

The British intelligence slightly over estimated the strength of Hipper’s force at four battlecruisers, six light cruisers and 22 torpedo boats.[5] Jellicoe’s assumption that the Germans would come out only when all their ships were available was wrong, since the battlecruiser SMS Von der Tann was in dry dock. This was for a routine overhaul, and the story that she was being repaired after colliding with another warship during the Cuxhaven Raid is wrong: it came from prisoners taken at Dogger Bank who either lied to mislead the enemy or else repeated false gossip.[6]

Beatty had the five battlecruisers of the 1st and 2nd Battle Cruiser squadrons and the four ships of the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron under his command: a sixth battlecruiser, HMS Queen Mary, was undergoing maintenance. He was ordered to rendezvous with the three light cruisers and 35 destroyers of Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt’s Harwich Force at 7:00 am on 24 January near Dogger Bank.

The King Edwards of the 3rd Battle Squadron and the armoured cruisers of the 3rd Cruiser Squadron were positioned about 45 miles northwest of the rendezvous point in case the Germans were driven north. Four submarines were sent to intercept the Germans on their way home, but received the signal too late to do so if they got back to port before dusk on 24 January.[7]

Jellicoe and the rest of the Grand Fleet were ordered to sea, but too late to make the action. He later complained that his ships could have been at Beatty and Tyrwhitt’s rendezvous point by 9:30 am on 24 January had he been told to raise steam as soon as the Admiralty learnt that of the German operation. In the event, his ships were 140 miles away from the battle.[8]

The light cruiser HMS Aurora of the Harwich Force came into contact with the Germans just before sunrise. Beatty headed South South East at full speed in the hope of getting to the south of the Germans and cutting them off from their bases. Even if a chase developed, the wind would be blowing the smoke of the coal fired ships towards the Germans, giving the British an advantage on visibility, The Germans were in sight at 8:00 am and the British fired their first ranging shots at 20,000 yards at 8:52 am.[9]

The British ships were sailing in the order Lion (Beatty’s flagship), Tiger, Princess Royal (these three all had eight 13.5 inch guns), New Zealand (Rear Admiral Sir Archibald Moore, commanding 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron’s flagship) and Indomitable (the last two both had eight 12 inch). The German order was Seydlitz (Hipper’s flagship with 10 11 inch), Derfflinger (eight 12 inch), Moltke (10 11 inch) and Blücher (12 8.2 inch). Blücher was outclassed, but the smaller guns of the German ships were otherwise counter-balanced by superior armour.

Beatty’s despatch claimed that Lion achieved a speed of 28.5 knots, although the highest given in her log was 27 knots. Indomitable could make only 25 knots. so fell behind. New Zealand claimed to have managed 27 knots, a knot faster than in her trials two years before. At 9:52 am Beatty had to slow down to 24 knots so that his squadron could keep close enough together to support each another.

The German claimed maximum speeds of about 28 knots for their three battlecruisers, but they were held back by Blücher, which managed only just over 22 knots, below her designed speed. The German squadron stayed together until 9:30 am, when the battlecruisers increased speed to 23 knots, pulling away from Blücher.

By 09:05 am all three 13.5 inch gun ships were firing on Blücher. The two 12 inch armed ones were still out of range. At 09:24 am Lion switched her fire to Derfflinger. The three German battlecruisers were all firing on Lion. At 09:35 am Beatty ordered his ships to fire on their opposite number in the enemy line.

This should have meant Lion at Seydlitz, Tiger at Moltke, Princess Royal at Derfflinger and New Zealand at Blücher Indomitable was out of range. However, Tiger, not realising that one British ship was not able to fire, targeted Seydlitz, meaning Moltke was not being fired at and creating spotting problems for Lion and Tiger.

At 09:43 am Lion hit Seydlitz’s aft turret, creating a cordite fire that put the two aft turrets out of action and required the flooding of the magazine. However, Lion was suffering heavy damage and started to lose speed from 10:45 am. Blücher, which by then was on fire, turned north in an attempt to escape at about the same time.

At 10:54 Lion thought that she had spotted a periscope, almost certainly wrongly as the German Official History later stated that there were no U-boats in the area.[10] Beatty therefore ordered a turn to port, taking the course to North North East . Hipper ordered a torpedo boat attack on the battlecruisers at 11:00 am, but it was cancelled at 11:07 am because of their change of course.

Lion had been hit 15 times, her port engine was stopped, all her lights were out, her speed was down to 15 knots, she was listing 10 degrees to port, her searchlights and wireless were out of action and she had only two signal halliards.

The rest of the squadron had to immediately resume the chase in order to take advantage of an opportunity to destroy the German squadron, but it was lost because of signalling errors. Beatty ordered two signals to be raised: ‘Course N.E’ and ‘Attack the rear of the enemy.’ They were then followed by ‘Keep nearer the enemy – repeat the signal Admiral is now making.’

Beatty’s intention was that the squadron should head north east, taking it clear of any mines that he wrongly feared the German torpedo boats might have dropped, and cutting Blücher off from the German battlecruisers. However, Blücher was north east of the British squadron and Moore, who was now in command since Lion could not keep up, did not know why Beatty had ordered the earlier turn.

Beatty’s first two signals were interpreted as a single one: ‘Attack the rear of the enemy bearing north east.’ The British battlecruisers therefore pounded the stricken Blücher to destruction, whilst the rest of the German squadron escaped. They fired on Tiger for a while, hitting her seven times and putting one turret out of action, before moving out of range to the south east.

Blücher was now under attack from four battlecruisers and several light cruisers and destroyers. She was still putting up a fight and badly damaged the destroyer HMS Meteor, but stopped firing at 11:38 am after the light cruiser HMS Arethusa put two torpedoes into her.

At 11:40 am the battlecruisers headed south east in pursuit of the Germans. Five minutes later Tyrwhitt reported that Blücher had struck her colours. The British then began to rescue survivors, observed by a Zeppelin that had been fired on by the light cruiser HMS Southamption around 10:30 am. A German seaplane appeared at 12:30 pm and dropped bombs. The rescue effort was called off at 12:40 pm, by when most of the men in the sea had been either rescued or killed by the bombs. Presumably the seaplane crew assumed that the sinking ship was British. She was then the only large German ship with a tripod mast, but all British dreadnoughts and battlecruisers had tripod masts.[11]

Beatty had meanwhile called for the destroyers to come alongside Lion. At 11:25 am he transferred his flag to the destroyer HMS Attack, which took him to HMS Princes Royal. He was onboard her by 12:20 pm, but it was now too late for the British to catch the Germans.

Dogger Bank was a clear British victory, with a German armoured cruiser and no British ships sunk. It could have been a greater victor had the British battlecruisers pursued the retreating Germans. It is possible that the a pursuit might have turned victory into defeat, given the way in which three British battlecruisers would blow up at Jutland in 1916.

However, Seydlitz was already badly damaged, and her near loss shows that the in 1915 the Germans were also making the mistakes in ammunition handling and flash protection that cost the British three battlecruisers a year later. A German U-boat crewman who was captured in 1918 had been a gunlayer on Seydlitz at Dogger Bank. The British report on his interrogation said that:

‘Great damage was done by a shell which hit her aftermost turret and exploded the ready ammunition (6 rounds per gun) stowed there. A flame rose mast high and also went down the ammunition hold, causing the magazine to be flooded hurriedly to save the ship. The entire turret’s crew, including the men in the magazine perished. Informant could not remember if a fire was actually started.

In consequence of this, precautionary measures were taken which had a very considerable influence on the Battle of Jutland. These were:-

1. At the top and bottom of all cartridge hoists double flap doors were fitted through which every cartridge has to pass.

2. Similar doors were fitted to the projectile hoists in the turrets and working chambers, but not in the shell rooms.

3. The ready supply of six rounds in the turret was abandoned.

4. The hatchways to magazines and shell rooms were ordered to be kept closed while at sea, and the only exits from these compartments is then by way of an escape through the central hoist into the turret.

5. The manhole in the well under the slide of each gun was ordered to be kept permanently closed.’[12]

The British had also had a chance to learn from their mistakes when HMS Kent was saved from blowing up at the Falkland Islands by the courage and quick thinking of Royal Marine Sergeant Charles Mayes, but did nothing other than awarding Mayes the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal. lists lost 14 British killed and 29 wounded: 17 wounded on Lion, 10 killed and 11 wounded on Tiger and 4 killed and one wounded on Meteor. Lion had to be towed back to port by Indomitable, and took four months to be repaired.[13]

German casualties were 959 killed, 90 returned to port wounded and 234 captured, 45 of them wounded: 792 killed and all the captured on Blücher, 159 killed and 88 wounded on Seydlitz and 8 killed and two wounded on the light cruiser SMS Kolberg. Seydlitz was ready for sea on 1 April and Derfflinger on 17 February.[14]

The battle resulted in von Ingenohl being replaced as commander of the High Seas Fleet by Admiral Hugo von Pohl on 2 February. Moore, who was deemed to lack the initiative required to command a battlecruiser squadron, was transferred to command a cruiser squadron in the Canaries.

Admiral Lord Fisher, the First Sea Lord, wanted to dismiss Captain Henry Pelly of Tiger, who had fired on the wrong target and then should, according to Fisher, have disobeyed Moore’s orders and continued the chase. Fisher, looking back to Lord Nelson, said that ‘In war the first principle is to disobey orders. Any fool can obey orders!’[15] Tiger’s gunnery was also poor, but Pelly kept his job.

Another who retained his position was Lieutenant Ralph Seymour, Beatty’s Flag Lieutenant. He had made a crucial signalling error during the pursuit of Hipper’s squadron after the North East Raid and was clearly not good enough at signalling to do the job. He had other duties, such as being the admiral’s social secretary when ashore, but signalling was by far the most important task. Beatty, who was loyal to his immediate subordinates, liked him. However, if he did not want to fire Seymour he could have arranged to promote him away to a destroyer command, but he kept him on to make more mistakes at Jutland.[16]

Dogger Bank was a British victory, but it was one that glossed over many problems, such as poor gunnery, dangerous ammunition handling procedures and signalling errors. Derfflinger was hit once, which set her on fire. Seydlitz was hit only twice, but the almost catastrophic nature of one of the hits caused the Germans to correct mistakes in their anti-flash procedures, which the British did not do.[17]

[1] J. S. Corbett, H. Newbolt, Naval Operations, 5 vols. (London: HMSO, 1938). vol. ii, p. 82.

[2] The National Archives (TNA), Kew, CAB 45/284, ‘German Navy and Sources of Material: Dogger Bank Action, 1915: Translation of German Account, by Commander Groos’ Quoted in ‘The Action of the Dogger Bank 24th January, 1915’ by Commander Groos, ‘Marine Rundeschau’, March 1922, p. 22.

[3] K. Yates, Flawed Victory: Jutland, 1916 (London: Chatham, 2000), pp. 79-80.

[5] Corbett, Newbolt, Naval, p. 84.

[6] R. D. Layman, The Cuxhaven Raid: The World’s First Carrier Air Strike (London: Conway Maritime Press, 1985), pp. 118-20.

[7] Naval Staff Monograph (Historical) vol. iii. p. 211.

[8] A. J. Marder, From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow the Royal Navy in the Fisher Era, 1904-1919, 5 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1961-70). vol. ii, p. 157-58.

[9] Except where otherwise stated, the description of the battle is based on Naval Staff vol. iii. pp. 212-17. Note that there are a number of alterations to the text, some hand written, some printed and attached to the original text, in the copy consulted.

[10] Corbett, Newbolt, Naval, p. 97. Footnote 1.

[11] R. K. Massie, Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea (London: Jonathan Cape, 2004), p. 407.

[12] TNA, CAB 45/283, ‘German Navy and Sources of Material: Dogger Bank Action, 1915: Miscellaneous Reports from German Sources’. BATTLE CRUISER “SEYDLITZ”

[14] Corbett, Newbolt, Naval. vol. ii, p. 102.

[15] Quoted in Marder, From. vol. ii. p. 169. Italics in Marder.

[16] G. A. H. Gordon, The Rules of the Game: Jutland and British Naval Command (London: John Murray, 1996), pp. 93-97.

[17] Marder, From. vol. ii, pp. 164-65.

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Warship Wednesday, April 11, 2018: Ms. Lane, of Paraguay, Nashville and Galveston fame

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, April 11, 2018: Ms. Lane, of Paraguay, Nashville and Galveston fame

LC-USZ62-48021: United States Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane. Wood engraving, 1858. Courtesy of the Library of Congress

Here we see the classic steam warship, USRC Harriet Lane of the Revenue Marine Service, and 157 years ago this very day she fired the first shot (at sea) in the Civil War, securing her place in history.

A copper plated side-paddle steamer with an auxiliary schooner rig, Lane was built for the US Treasury Department, by William H. Webb at Bell’s shipyard in New York City in 1857 at a cost of $140,000. She was named in honor of Ms. Harriet Rebecca Lane Johnston, the popular niece of lifelong bachelor President James Buchanan, who served as his first lady since he was unmarried at the time.

Her armament, a pair of old 32-pounders and a quartet of 24-pdr brass howitzers, was deemed sufficient for her work in stopping smugglers and destroying derelicts at sea, but she was constructed with three magazines and open deck space for additional guns should they be needed.

And soon, she was loaned to the Navy.

Before Lane was even laid down, the gunboat USS Water Witch, who was busy surveying the Río de la Plata basin in South America in 1855, was fired upon as by a Paraguayan battery at Fort Itapirú. Intended as a warning shot (Water Witch had approval from the Argentines but not Paraguay to survey the river), the ball accidentally hit the gunboat and killed the very unfortunate helmsman Samuel Chaney. A resulting fire-fight saw Water Witch hulled 10 times. Fast forward to October 1858 and a punitive expedition was ordered sent to Paraguay to sort things out, even though Water Witch had returned home in 1856.

This expeditionary force, the largest ever assembled by the U.S. Navy until the Civil War, consisted of 19 ships, which seems like a lot but really isn’t when you look at the list of vessels that went. While the Navy had a half-dozen large ships-of-the-line on the Naval List, all were in ordinary at the time. Of the impressive dozen super-sized frigates, just one, the 50-gun USS St. Lawrence, already in Brazil, could be spared. This left the rest of the fleet to be comprised of smaller sloops and brigs, ships taken up from trade and armed with cannon or two, and the brand new and very modern Harriet Lane. The commander of the task force? Flag Officer (there were no admirals at the time) William B. Shubrick, a War of 1812 veteran who was taken from his warm quiet desk at the Lighthouse Bureau in Washington and given his last seagoing command.

Ships of The Paraguay Squadron underway. Ships are from left to right: USS Water Witch next the flag-ship USS Sabine next to USS Fulton behind Fulton is USS Western Port (later USS Wyandotte) next is USS Harriet Lane behind Harriet Lane is USS Supply and next to the bow of USS Memphis. Artist unknown. Image from Harper’s Weekly, New York, 16 October 1858. Description from Navsource.

The force was filled with supplies and Marines (Lane herself shipped a 22-man force of Leathernecks) and set off for Latin America with special commissioner James B. Bowlin in tow. Lane at the time was skippered by Captain John Faunce, a skilled USRM officer since 1841, who would later command her at Fort Sumter– but we are ahead of ourselves.

Arriving in January 1859, Paraguay signed a commercial treaty with Brown, apologized for the hit on Water Witch with no more shots fired by either side and agreed to pay an indemnity to the family of the long-dead helmsman and the fleet returned home in February after some literal gunboat diplomacy.

By late 1860, she was back in New York and tapped for another high-profile job. On October 11, the cutter brought 18-year-old Edward, then-Prince of Wales and future King Edward VII of Great Britain and his suite from South Amboy to the waterfront of New York’s Battery Park where he was met by adoring crowds including Gen. Winfield Scott and Mayor Wood and an escort of “two troops of cavalry attached to the Seventh and Eight regiments” of the New York Militia whisked him away from Castle Garden to City Hall and all points Broadway. In her task, she flew the Royal Ensign and received 17-gun salutes up and down the New Jersey coast and Hudson River, surely a first for a Revenue Cutter.

Though Lane resumed her Revenue duties, she was soon again in Naval service.

With states dropping out of the Union left and right from December 1860 onward, she transferred to the Navy 30 March 1861 and was assigned to the Northern Blockading Squadron. Detailed to help supply the Fort Sumter garrison, a small U.S. Army post in rebel-held Charleston Harbor under the guns of coastal defense expert and former U.S. Army Maj (bvt) P. G. T. Beauregard, Lane left New York on 8 April headed to the Palmetto State, arriving three days later. The reason an armed ship was sent was that President Buchannan had detailed the unarmed merchant ship Star of the West to do so earlier in the year, an effort that failed when it was fired upon by Beauregard’s shore batteries made up partially of students from the Citadel.

On the morning of 11 April 1861, Harriet Lane arrived ahead of her task force that was following with supplies and 500 soldiers. Taking up a picket location around the island fort, on the morning of April 13, while the installation was under attack, Faunce order a shot from one of her 32-pounders, commanded by Lt. W. D. Thompson, across the bow of the oncoming steamship SS Nashville (1,241t, 215ft) as that vessel tried to enter Charleston Harbor. The reason for the round was because Nashville was flying no identifying flag, meaning she could possibly be a rebel ship.

The Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane forces the merchant steamer Nashville to show its colors during the attack on Fort Sumter, April 13, 1861. “The Cutter Harriet Lane Fires Across the Bow of Nashville” by Coast Guard artist Howard Koslow.

Unarmed and not looking to be sent to the bottom, Nashville raised the U.S. standard, and Harriet Lane broke off. Anticlimactic for sure, but the ole Nash went on to become a Confederate commerce raider armed with a pair of 12-pounders before serving in 1862 as the blockade runner Thomas L. Wragg and finally as the privateer Rattlesnake before she was destroyed by the monitor USS Montauk on the Ogeechee River in Georgia.

Fort Sumter fell on April 13, surrendered after a bloodless two-day bombardment that saw 2,000 Confederate shells hit the masonry fort and Lane withdrew. She soon was up-armed and before the end of the year engaged in the efforts against Fort Clark and Fort Hatteras on the outer banks of North Carolina.

80-G-1049444: USS Harriet Lane engaging a battery at Pig’s Point, on the Nansemond River, opposite Newport News. Copied from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 1861.

Then in early 1862 joined David Dixon Porter’s Mortar Flotilla at Key West as flagship, from where she captured the Confederate schooner, Joanna Ward.

With Porter aboard, Lane was there as his flagship when he plastered the rebel Forts Jackson and St. Philip, abreast the Mississippi below New Orleans, then continued to serve through the preliminary stages of the Vicksburg Campaigns.

LC-DIG-PPMSCA-35362: Rear Admiral David G. Farragut and Captain David D. Porter’s mortar fleet entering the Mississippi River, May 17, 1862. Wood engraving shows large squadron of battleships and ironclads entering the Mississippi River near the “Light-house of Southwest Pass” some are identified as the “Colorado, 40 Guns”, “Pensacola on the Bar”, “Westfield”, “Mississippi on the Bar”, “Porter’s Mortar Fleet”, “Harriet Lane”, “Connecticut, 8 Guns”, “Clifton”, and “Banona“. Harper’s Weekly, V.6, no.281, pg 312-13. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. 2048� big up

On 4 October 1862, in conjunction with the sidewheel steam ferryboat USS Westfield, Unadilla-class gunboat USS Owasco, the paddlewheel gunboat USS Clifton, and the schooner USS Henry Janes, Lane captured Galveston harbor from the Confederates in a show of force that left zero casualties on both sides.

Still in that newly-Union held port in Confederate Texas, Harriet Lane was the subject of an attack on 1 January 1863 that saw the Confederate cotton-clad CSS Bayou City and the armed tugboat Neptune engage the bigger cutter. While Lane sank the Neptune and damaged Bayou City, she was captured when the crew of the cottonclad succeeded in storming and overpowering the crew of the Lane with both the cutter’s captain and the executive officer killed along with three of her crew in fierce hand-to-hand combat.

An illustration of the Harriet Lane’s capture by Confederate forces on 1 January 1863

Her crew was taken into custody.

Lane, repaired and disarmed, was sold by the state of Texas to an enterprising shipper who christened her as the blockade runner Lavinia and, after just two trips carrying cotton abroad and commodities back, she finished the war in Cuban waters.

In 1867, the Revenue Marine sent her old Sumter commander, Faunce, and a crew to recover the battered, worn-out ship from Havana in condemned condition and she was subsequently sold to a Boston merchant.

As noted by DANFS, she was abandoned after a fire during hurricane-force winds off Pernambuco, Brazil, 13 May 1884, while en route to Buenos Aires.

Relics of her time in Texas are in the collection of The Museum of Southern History, located in Houston.

The Revenue Marine, of course, became the U.S. Coast Guard in 1916 and the service honored the historic vessel by naming a second cutter, USCGC Harriet Lane (WSC-141), a 125-foot patrol craft, in 1926 which gave 20 years of hard service to include WWII and Prohibition.

The third cutter to share the name is the 270-foot Bear (Famous)-class medium endurance cutter USCGC Harriet Lane (WMEC-903). Commissioned in May 1984, she is still in active service and last week commemorated the first Lane’s historic shot in front of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.

That 75mm OTO! The crew of the Coast Guard Cutter Harriet Lane sails past Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina, April 5, 2018. USCG Photo

She is no lightweight either, recently returned to homeport from a 94-day patrol in drug trafficking zones of the Eastern Pacific, after seizing approximately 17,203 pounds of cocaine from suspected smugglers.

The crew of the Coast Guard Cutter Harriet Lane approaches a suspected smuggling vessel while a helicopter crew from the Coast Guard Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron monitors from the air, February 25, 2018.

Displacement 539 lt. 619 std, 730 t. fl
Length 175′ 5″
Beam 30′ 5″
Draft 10′ as designed, 13 at full load 1862
Propulsion: steam – double-right angled marine engine with two side paddles, auxiliary sail two-masted schooner rig
Speed 11 anticipated, 13kts on trials
Complement: 8 officers, 74 men (1857) 12 officers, 95 men (1862)
(As built)
4x 24-pounder brass howitzers
(After joining West Gulf Squadron, 1862)
1ࡪ″ Parrott gun as a pivot on forecastle
1࡯″ Dahlgren gun on pivot before the first mast
2࡮″ Dahlgren Columbiad guns
2吔-pounder brass howitzers
Plus “cutlasses and small arms for 95 men”

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Watch the video: Destroyermen - Life Aboard a Cold War. DD Restored Color (July 2022).


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