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15 December 1943

15 December 1943



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15 December 1943

December 1943

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War Crimes

The Soviets begin trials of Germans accused of committing war crimes at Kharkov

Pacific

US Troops land at Arawe, at the opposite end of New Britain to the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul.



Speech delivered by the Acting Director General of the Kalibapi Camilo Osias, over Station PIAM, in connection with the first anniversary of the Kalibapi, December 7, 1943

Tomorrow the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, or the Kalibapi for short, will be exactly a year old, for it was on December 8, 1942, that the Association was inaugurated. It is only meet and proper that on the eve of its first anniversary we pause awhile to ponder upon the significance of its establishment and take stock of its achievements as a popular agency in the promotion of the general welfare and in the pursuit of our national ideals.

The Kalibapi was born of a dire need for creating a new Philippines out of the ruins and debris of the old which the Greater East Asia War, declared one year earlier, had left in its wake. Countrysides had been laid waste, farms had been devastated, towns and cities had been scorched out of existence. The normal course of civilized life had been disrupted and men, women, and children had left their homes to seek protection from the ravages of war in mountains and forests. Then when victorious Imperial Japanese forces once more restored order, people flocked to the cities, especially Manila. This flow of population to the cities did not, however, mean a return to normalcy. On the other hand, it aggravated the problems, social, economic, and otherwise, which population centers must face whenever there is undue overcrowding, inadequate transportation and other facilities, and uncertainty and insufficiency in the food supply. The farms on which cities naturally depended for food were neglected. Instead of returning to productive work, people preferred to wait passively for the issue of a conflict that was and is proving to be long drawn-out. On the other hand, some uninformed elements of our population continued to hide in the mountain fastnesses and to offer sporadic or futile resistance.

Such was the dismal picture of our country when the Kalibapi was launched to brighten up the scene. Since then the record of the Kalibapi as an agency for nation-wide rehabilitation and reconstruction has been clean and above reproach. It has been partly instrumental in the work of pacification. Where the exercise of sheer military force has failed, the Kalibapi, employing the methods of enlightenment and persuasion, has succeeded in making guerrilla bands see the futility of further resistance and the need of joining hands with their fellow countrymen in the ennobling task of rebuilding their country. In this manner it began its program of national unification that was eventually to lead up to a series of transcendent events culminating in the independence of the Philippines. I need not dwell at length on the epoch making developments of the last six months” To anyone who has gone through that stirring period and realized its significance, the influence of the Kalibapi in shaping the course of those epochal events has been indubitably patent. On June 19, 1943, upon the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces in the Philippines a Special National Convention of the Kalibapi choose twenty prominent Filipinos to form the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence, which in less than three months completed work on a constitution. This historic document was promptly ratified by a Special General Assembly of the Kalibapi. Again on September 20, 1943, the Kalibapi took charge of the national elections for members of the National Assembly provided for in the Constitution. Six days later the Assemblymen-elect met for the first time, elected their Speaker in the person of the Honorable Benigno S. Aquino, hitherto Director General of the Kalibapi, and in the same unanimous fashion chose Dr. Jose P. Laurel as the President of the Republic of the Philippines, the man who best personifies the spirit of a new Philippines recouping its material and spiritual losses brought about by a global conflict.

When on October 14 the Republic of the Philippines was formally inaugurated, the work of the Kalibapi, far from being ended, only assumed greater significance. The tasks of national reconstruction and rehabilitation to which the Association originally addressed itself must continue apace, and the unification of our people must likewise be pursued with greater vigor if we are to make the foundations of the Republic permanent and secure. The Kalibapi has thus launched a program whereby these and others of its noble aims and purposes might be attained.

One of these objectives is stepping-up the campaign for adult membership so that at least 20 per cent of the Philippine population will be Kalibapi members. On the basis of our present population of 18,000,000, the membership drive, therefore, hopes to have 3,600,000 within its fold. Of this number 33i per cent, it is hoped, will be women. On the other hand, the campaign for the Junior Kalibapi expects to secure for this junior organization twice as many members as there are pupils and students presently enrolled in the public and private schools of the country. When the Kalibapi membership reaches these proportions, the Association will have attained a highly representative character.

The Kalibapi objective of helping put the country squarely on its economic feet has been closely associated with its campaign for increased food production. A definitive step already taken in this direction is the plan, already publicized, to make this year’s celebration of Rizal Day a fruit-tree planting day, on which 1,000,000 fruit trees will be planted all over the country. The increment to the country’s food supply and economic wealth by such a practical project is so obvious that further elucidation is superfluous. Its moral and educational values are, needless to say, incalculable.

To implement further the steps already taken in the interest of greater national cohesion. the Kalibapi has recently launched a nationwide campaign to so propagate Tagalog as the Filipino language that 4,000,000 Filipinos, apart from those reached by the schools, will be given instruction in 1944 in that language. A list of 1,000 basic words or expressions in Tagalog selected on the basis of their utility, frequency, cruciality, and similarity with words or expressions in the other Philippine languages, has been completed by a group of Tagalog specialists and researchers in the Kalibapi and will soon go to the press along with model lesson plans which ought to be helpful as guides to teachers in this nation-wide campaign. Believing sincerely in the efficacy of a common language as a unifying force in our national life, we desire to enlist the active support of all Filipinos for this program. Non-Tagalogs should willingly attend such classes as may be organized within their reach, and Tagalogs should, whenever possible, volunteer their services as teachers.

For carrying out the foregoing program and projects of the Kalibapi, appropriate instructions have been given to the graduates of the Kalibapi Leaders’ Institute, many of whom have returned to their respective provinces and cities. During their three-month period of training in Manila, they were imbued with the spirit of service and were instructed on how they could help advance the economic and cultural progress of their communities.

Only the future can, of course, tell how effective the Kalibapi will be as an instrumentality in aiding our country and people to weather the storms of the present global conflict. But if its future is to be judged by its past, the Kalibapi can be expected to rise to loftier heights of achievement. Tonight, therefore, as we pause to appraise its work and find it worthy of our people’s support the Kalibapi can face the future undaunted and calm in the confidence that despite unfounded initial prejudices against it, it has performed signal service for our people and is resolved to carry out its high mission with the good of our country always its first and foremost consideration.


PHOTOS: Today in history — December 16

Former heavyweight boxing champ Muhammad Ali pats the bars on the door of the Dade County jail, Dec. 16, 1968, as he starts serving a 10-day sentence on an old traffic charge. Ali said this would be good training if he has to serve his five-year term for draft dodging. The former champion surrendered voluntarily today and is accompanied by his attorney Henry Arrington.

Tail section of UAL airliner blocks intersection of two streets in heavily populated area of Brooklyn, Dec. 16, 1960 after plane crashed as it approached Idlewild Airport for a landing. A section of planes wing can be seen at base of tree at right center. In background is block of apartment set ablaze when plane crash. Intersection at 7th avenue and sterling place.

Great playwright George Bernard Shaw, location unknown on Dec. 16, 1928.

A Marine corps dive bomber, the “Push Push,” right, leaves formation to drop a smoke bomb on the beach at Bougainville to mark a landing spot for marines on landing barges a quarter of a mile off shore to the entrance of Empress Augusta Bay on Dec. 16, 1943.

The irrepressible antics of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, and Helen Kane's singing helped put over a Christmas fund benefit staged by the Los Angeles newspaper in the Shrine Auditorium, Dec. 16, 1932. The amusing threesome is shown in the wings.

This is a general view of the Associated Press newsphoto desk, New York, Dec. 16, 1935.

Paul Wagner, The Associated Press

Teresa Whelan, Helen Corbin, Sgt. Lawrence Lovell, Jane Peterson and Julie Bellus were into this army truck’s “innards” in no time flat when Sgt. Lovell, as their instructor, gave advice in car repair, in Fort Lewis, Wash., Dec. 16, 1940. To lift heavy objects from the truck for repairs there would be a mechanical crane which the girls could operate easily. When asked how they would like to have plenty of work on their hands, one girl replied, “Oh, this is fun. Give us a broken down truck and we’ll show you.”

Boston Bruins' Bobby Orr holds a Grecian amphora, the Sports Illustrated 1970 Sportsman of the year award, in Boston, Dec. 16, 1970.

Soldiers ordered to peel potatoes are not reckoned to smile like this. But this is the secret: “spud barbering,” as the Diggers call it, is shared by all except – of course N.C.O’s. The men go on a roster and these men’s turn has come Dec. 16, 1942. That removes any cause for ill-feeling, and gives them men a chance for a gossip as good as any sewing-bee.

Rudolph Faircloth, The Associated Press

This is the inside of one car of the Atlantic Coast Line train which was wrecked in a derailment and collision with another Atlantic Coast Line train near Buie, N.C., Dec. 16, 1943. Seventy-two people died in crash.

Standing in the backyard of an abandoned house in the outskirts of the besieged city of Leningrad, a rifleman of the Red Army aims and fires his machine gun at German positions, on Dec. 16, 1942.

A crew, right, works to remove a drift in front of a New York Central train to enable it to reach the Terrace Station in Buffalo, N.Y., Dec. 16, 1945. A record-breaking storm disrupted train travel between Batavia, N.Y., and Buffalo.

Henry Burroughs, The Associated Press

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India and President Dwight D. Eisenhower shake hands on North Portico of the White House in Washington on Dec. 16, 1956, as the Indian diplomat arrives after flight from London. They will confer on ways to keep peace in a troubled world.

Horace Cort, The Associated Press

Hundreds of blacks march down a street in Albany, Ga. under arrest as they marched against segregation in the city on Dec. 16, 1961.

Shabbily-dressed Isaac Grady Sanders, 13, leans against door of shack in Whitwell, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1963 where his family will have a stark and bleak Christmas. His father is one of thousands of Former coal miners who were laid off several years ago. The lad, oldest of seven children, lives with his grandmother across the road from his parents’ home. The rest of the family three girls and three boys and their parents live and sleep in a 12-by-12 room, furnished with two double beds, a couch and a stack of blankets.

Skating chimpanzees (from left) Candy, Enoch and Marquis, frolic on the ice during their first rehearsal for the Christmas ice show at Wembley in London on Dec. 16, 1963.

Nobel Prize-winning author John Steinbeck wears earphones as he rides in an Army helicopter on Dec. 17, 1966 in Vietnam over the central Vietnamese Highlands. The 64-year-old author came to Vietnam to "go up the rivers and into the mountains" to see it for himself. Steinbeck began his first trip to visit combat units his first field trip to visit combat units the weekend of Dec. 16, 1966.

Robert Klein, The Associated Press

Saundra Brown, 28, the first black woman on the Oakland police force gets instructions on how to shoot a shotgun from the hip by police range master Adolph Bischofberger on Dec. 16, 1970 in Oakland, California. Saundra graduates on Friday near the top of her class after 15 weeks of criminal law, report writing, first aid, firearms training and defensive tactics. “I really feel very confident now,” she said, “but before I was totally afraid. I didn't want to be around a gun.”

NBC News correspondent Edwin Newman, on-camera reporter for "NBC Reports" is surrounded by the rock group KISS and their manager, Bill Aucoin, left, Dec. 16, 1977. Members of KISS are, from left to right: Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, Paul Stanley and Ace Frehley.

G. Paul Burnett, The Associated Press

Yogi Berra talks to reporters after he was named as the new manager of the New York Yankees, Dec. 16, 1983 in New York. Berra, 58, who was given a two-year contract, becomes the eighth manager Yankees' owner, George Steinbrenner, has hired since 1973 when he headed a group of investors who purchased the team.

Rhythmic two-step by two Askari Chiefs during a ceremonial war dance held by Askaris - native troops employed by the Italians - to celebrate victory on Dec. 16, 1935. An Italian officer is seen looking on.

Mike Tweed, The Associated Press

Actor Woody Harrelson in character as Woody Boyd, the Indiana boy who becomes bartender in TV's "Cheers", Dec. 16, 1985, Los Angeles, Calif. Harrelson has very little acting experience but found himself replacing the late Nicholas Colasanto in the hit series.

Eric Risberg, The Associated Press

The battleship USS Iowa fires its 16-inch guns during duty in the Persian Gulf on Dec. 16, 1987. In 1943, the Iowa ferried President Franklin Roosevelt home from the Teheran Conference, where post-WW II leaders divided up the world. The ship fought battles from the South Pacific to Korea and escorted convoys through the Persian Gulf. Forty-seven sailors died atop its deck when an explosion ripped through a gun turret. Now, the new port for the retired USS Iowa just might be the home of California's annual asparagus festival, the gritty agriculture port town of Stockton on the San Joaquin River, about 80 miles inland from San Francisco.

David J. Phillip, The Associated Press

President-elect Bush smiles as he introduces retired Gen. Colin Powell, left, as his nominee to be secretary of state during a ceremony in Crawford, Texas, Saturday, Dec. 16, 2000. Powell served as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under President George Bush, father of the president-elect.


History

Seventy-five years ago, Camp Hood officially opened Sept. 18, 1942, in Central Texas to rapidly train tank destroyer battalions desperately needed during World War II.

Named for the commander of the Confederate Texas Brigade, General John Bell Hood, the original facilities provided housing and training sites for nearly 38,000 troops. In January 1943, an additional 16,000 acres in Bell County and 34,943 acres in Coryell County near Gatesville were purchased. The site near Gatesville was known as the sub-camp and later as North Fort Hood. During the war years, North Fort Hood housed nearly 40,000 troops and 4,000 prisoners of war and was the site for the southern branch of the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks.

By the end of 1944, the number of tank destroyer battalions in training at Camp Hood declined rapidly but field artillery battalions and the Infantry Replacement Training Center replaced them. The last year of World War II saw a major shift of emphasis in Camp Hood’s mission and a drastic reduction in population. As the war came to an end, the training of troops slowed and equipment reclamation and demobilization planning became the priorities. A separation center was established in September 1945, and as the year ended, post strength had fallen to 1,807 prisoners and about 11,000 troops.

In January 1946, the 2nd and 20th Armored Divisions arrived from overseas. From the end of 1946 to 1950, Camp Hood changed little, but on April 15, 1950, Camp Hood became a permanent installation and was redesignated as Fort Hood. During the Korean War years, the post continued its training mission and provided individual replacements for many of the units involved in that conflict.

In mid-1954, III Corps moved from California to Fort Hood. The Corps supervised the training of combat units at Fort Hood and other Fourth Army stations from 1954 to 1959 when III Corps was inactivated. Probably, the most famous trainee to come through Fort Hood was Elvis Presley, arriving on March 28, 1958. Other than receiving record amounts of mail (three to four bags per day), Presley was treated like all other trainees. Nearly six months later, Presley shipped out for Germany.

In September 1961, Fort Hood again became the home for the III Corps, and in February 1962, III Corps was assigned as part of the U.S. Army Strategic Army Corps. On June 15, 1963, Killeen Base was turned over to the Army. Today, the only remnant of its secret mission is tunnels honeycombed under West Fort Hood.

In October 1969, Killeen Base was designated as West Fort Hood and the airfield’s name was designated as Robert Gray Army Airfield. The base was named after a Killeen native who was killed flying combat missions during World War II. Robert Gray was also a pilot of a B-25 bomber on the famous Doolittle Raid on Tokyo in 1942. With a redesignation came a change in mission at West Fort Hood. Atomic weapons were removed. They had been secretly kept there since 1947.

During the late 1960s, Fort Hood trained and deployed a number of units and individuals for duty in Vietnam. As the United States ended its role in the conflict, thousands of returning Soldiers completed their active duty with one of the divisions.

During this time, the post began a modernization effort. On Sept. 13, 1965, Darnall Hospital opened and began providing quality medical care to the Fort Hood community. In 1970, construction began on Palmer Theater and Venable Village was dedicated. New barracks were springing up around post. The wood buildings of Fort Hood were quickly being replaced with brick structures. In September 1967, Fort Hood was officially designated a two-division post with the 1st and 2nd Armored Divisions. In 1971, the 1st Cavalry Division came to Fort Hood from Vietnam and replaced the 1st Armored Division when “Old Ironsides” moved to Germany.

Throughout the 1970s and ’80s, Fort Hood played a major role in the training, testing and introduction of new equipment, tactics and organizations. A primary player in the test and evaluation mission has been the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command’s Test and Experimentation Command (now the U.S. Army Operational Test Command), located at West Fort Hood. Fort Hood has been instrumental in the fielding of the M1 Abrams tank, M2/3 Bradley Infantry/Cavalry Fighting Vehicle, the Multiple Launch Rocket System and the AH-64 Apache helicopter.

In August 1990, Fort Hood was alerted for deployments to Southwest Asia as part of the joint forces participating in Operation Desert Shield. The deployment to Saudi Arabia began in September, extending into mid-October. Upon its return to the United States, the 1st Cavalry Division became the largest division in the Army, with the reactivation of its 3rd “Greywolf” Battle Team May 21, 1991, and subsequent activation of the division’s Engineer Brigade in October 1992.

The 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) was designated the Army’s Experimental Force on Dec. 15, 1995, as its colors were unfurled for the first time over Central Texas and Fort Hood. A new chapter in its long history began as its Soldiers were given the mission to lead the Army into the 21st Century. Twenty-five years after making its home in Colorado, the Iron Horse Division was again re-stationed to meet the Army’s requirements, but this move would be quite different from others. The Iron Horse Division became a split-based organization with six brigades and three brigade combat teams remaining at Fort Carson.

In the 1990s, Fort Hood units supported Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia to help bring an end to years of bloodshed in that war-torn country. In October 1998, the 1st Cavalry Division was the first United States division to assume authority of the Multinational Division (North) area of operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Also during the 1990s, Fort Hood continued an extensive building program to modernize the post. The Robertson Blood Center, Soldier Development Center, Soldier Service Center and a new Commissary at Warrior Way were all completed during this timeframe. Many other improvements were made to the Power Projection Mission of the post such as upgrades to the railhead and the runway at Robert Gray Army Airfield and to training ranges.

The beginning of the 21st century saw modernization in the Army in full swing. Fort Hood made history when it was the first installation selected to privatize post housing under the residential communities’ initiative. Under this initiative, new housing units, remodeled housing and community improvements were added to the post.

After Sept. 11, 2011, a new era was ushered in at Fort Hood as security and the war on terrorism became a prime focus. Fort Hood transitioned from an open to a closed post almost overnight. Since 2001, the deployment pace at Fort Hood has accelerated as the Army continued to fight the war on terrorism. Many Fort Hood units have deployed to Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom and to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn.

Highlighting this period was the 4th Infantry Division’s assistance in the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003 and the 1st Cavalry Division’s deployment to Baghdad in spring 2004, culminating with Iraq’s first democratic election in the post-Saddam Hussein era in early 2005.

Later in 2005, many Fort Hood units were called on to provide humanitarian relief after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and Hurricane Rita in southeastern Texas and Louisiana. More humanitarian aid came from Fort Hood in early 2006 after a devastating earthquake in Pakistan.

Closing out this century’s first decade, in 2009 the 4th Infantry Division returned from Iraq and cased its colors at Fort Hood for the last time with the unit’s move back to Fort Carson, Colorado. Coming from Fort Carson was the Division West Headquarters of the First Army. Also in 2009, Fort Hood opened its Resiliency Campus (now the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Training Facility) to help meet the needs of Soldiers and their Families.

Two major events in 2010 had a lasting impact on the educational aspirations of the Fort Hood military community. The first was Jan. 13, when Central Texas College opened a new classroom building with 21 new classrooms and four state-of-the-art computer labs. Then on Aug. 26, Texas A&M-Central Texas broke ground on a new campus complex on land provided by the installation.

In December 2010, the Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center broke ground on a $534 million hospital, which opened in spring 2016. The post opened a new main exchange complex in October 2015.

Over the past several years, fewer troops have been called to serve in harm’s way overseas than in the previous decade. The 1st Cavalry Division’s 3rd “Grey Wolf” Brigade Combat Team was the final unit to leave Iraq in December 2011.


15 December 1943 - History

Be sure you are familiar with how legislation is passed in Georgia.

Decide how much time you want to spend

In general, state legislative history is elusive and Georgia is no exception. The Georgia General Assembly does not publish transcripts of its floor debate or committee reports. The hunt for legislative intent can be time-consuming and may not always produce results. To avoid frustration, decide up front how much time you are willing to devote this research task.

Also keep in mind, the Georgia courts primarily look at the plain meaning of the statute when determining legislative intent. You may do a great deal of research into the legislative intent of a statute only to have your argument rejected by the court.

Georgia Legislative History Resources

Consult an annotated code such as the O.C.G.A. to identify relevant session laws

Following the text of each statute, you'll find references to the statute's session laws. Session law citations will appear in the following format: Ga. L. 1985, p. 1331, § 4.

Review the text of the session laws

Session laws are all the laws from a given legislative session in the order in which they were passed, and they include special and private acts that never become part of the codified laws.

Often, a bill's preamble will include a statement of purpose. You'll also want to compare versions of the statute if it has been amended

  • Acts and resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia, KFG25 .A2, Main Floor, 1870 - present
  • Heinonline, 1995-2007
  • Georgia Legislative Documents, http://www.galileo.usg.edu/express?link=zlgl, 1799-1999.

Consult the GSU Law Review's "Peach Pages"

The Georgia State University Law Review reviews selected Georgia legislation in its fall issues. You can easily spot the fall issue because the actual color of the pages is peach. The "Peach Pages" include analysis of the bills, relevant floor debate, personal interviews, and newspaper articles.

  • Georgia State University Law Review, K7 .E74 , Main Floor, v. 1 - present
  • Heinonline, 1984-2007
  • Lexis, Georgia State University Law Review, 1996-present
  • Web, http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/query.cgi?context=gsulr&field_1=document_type&op_1=eq&value_1=peachsheet&advanced=1, 2000 - present,
  • Westlaw, GASTULR, selected coverage 1985-1993, full coverage 1993 - present

Check Lexis or Westlaw's legislative history databases

  • Westlaw - GA-LH - bill histories, amendments, vote records, daily reports, weekly reports, news releases and governor's messages. Coverage varies by document type but generally documents from 2000 - to present are included.
  • Lexis - Georgia Legislative Bill History - Bill analyses, governor's messages, committee reports, fiscal messages and summary amendments. Coverage varies by document type but generally documents from 2000 - to present are included.

Review the Georgia House and Senate Journals

  • Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Georgia, KFG18 .A25, 2nd Floor, Law Library Annex, 1834 - present
  • Journal of the Senate of the State of Georgia, KFG18 .A26, 2nd Floor, Law Library Annex, 1810 - present

Compare versions of bills

By comparing different versions of a bill, you can identify which text has been added or deleted from a bill. Sometimes, these additions or deletions can help clarify the legislative intent of the bill.

  • Georgia General Assembly, http://www.legis.ga.gov/en-US/default.aspx 1995 -present
  • Lexis - Georgia Full-Text Bills - bills from the current session of the Georgia legislature
  • Westlaw - GA-BILLTXT - bills from the current session of the Georgia legislature
  • Westlaw - GA-BILLS-OLD - from 1996

Check the Georgia Legislative Network

The Georgia Legislative Network (GLN) is available from the Georgia General Assembly's website: http://www.legis.ga.gov/. The GLN has video files of Georgia House committee hearings from 2007 to present. The website indicates that due to server space restrictions, only the most current video feeds are available. You can contact the House Communications Office for information of archived meetings. Also while the General Assembly is in session, you can watch gavel-to-gavel coverage of the proceedings at the GLN.

Look for media coverage

  • Lexis - Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 1991-current
  • Westlaw - ATLNTAJC - 1988 - present
  • AJC.com - http://www.ajc.com
  • Daily Report - Daily Report Online - 1996 - present
  • Georgia Public Broadcasting's GPTV provides nightly detailed analysis of the day's legislative sessions on the program Lawmakers, http://www.gpb.org/lawmakers. Archived versions of the television show are available from the website, 2002 - present
  • Senate Radio, http://www.legis.ga.gov/Legislation, an audio archive of press conferences and statements made by Senators

Contact the Georgia General Assembly

The University of Georgia School of Law 225 Herty Drive Athens, GA 30602-6012 (706) 542-5191


15 December 1943 - History

During its history the 4th Armoured Brigade had several different organisation structures. Most of them are as follows, in date order, although obviously some units may have fought with the Brigade in between the dates show.

The key orders of battle shown are below, but for those prior to the Brigade leaving 7th Armoured Division after the end of the North African campaign (including its time as an Independent armoured brigade under the Division's command) in 1943 please use the following links Late 1939 , November 1940 , May-June 1941, (Battleaxe) and November 1941 (Sidi Rezegh) , April 1942 (Gazala) , August 1942 (Alam Halfa), October 1942 (El Alamein) , February 1943 (Tunisia), which show the entire Divisional Organisation

On the page below are shown the orders of battle for the Brigade. These are provided in two sections. One which is just the Brigades organisation from August 1942, the key orders of battle shown are July to August 1942 (Alam Halfa), October 1942 (El Alamein), November to December 1942 (Pursuit across the Desert), January to May 1943 (Push to Tunis), while under the command of 7th Armoured Division, and the remainder, from July 1943, are those from when the Brigade began its role as an Independent armoured brigade, which are July-August 1943 (Sicily) , September 1943 (Italy), October 1943 - January 1944 (Italy), and February 1944 - May 1945 (Normandy to Germany)

Order Of Battle - July to August 1942 (Alam Halfa) . See Campaigns and engagements - 1942 for details of the engagements


15 December 1943 - History

December 7, 1941, “a date which will live in infamy,” signaled the United States entrance into World War II. The country needed to adapt in order to support the war effort. Food and clothing were rationed. People planted Victory Gardens to grow their own produce and stretch rations. Towns held scrap drives to collect household goods made of rubber and aluminum to provide materials for the defense industry. Many people also contributed financially by purchasing war bonds from the government.

Relocation of Japanese Americans during World War
Photograph by Ansel Adams

While America went to war to defend democracy and freedom, these ideals were not fully realized at home as racism and discrimination persisted towards immigrants and non-white Americans. Citing defense concerns on the West Coast in 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. This order removed over 100,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans from the Pacific Coast and placed them in internment camps for much of the war. Many parts of the United States were still heavily segregated and discriminatory towards African Americans. Often, they received less pay or were barred outright from working in various companies. Many African Americans participated in the “Double V Campaign,” which sought to win the war and gain equality for all people.

America’s involvement in World War II signaled changes on the home front and shifts in men’s and women’s roles. Many men were enlisted in the armed services, leaving a large number of jobs vacant. Wartime production demands for more planes, guns, and other military goods required an increase in the labor force. The US government called on women to fill these labor needs. Women were employment in a variety of jobs, which had previously been carried out by men. They joined the military, worked in defense plants, drove streetcars, worked on farms, and performed other roles on the home front.

The enlistment of men into the military included players from major league baseball. President of the Wrigley’s chew gum company and owner of the Chicago Cubs ball club, Philip K. Wrigley, decided to form a girls’ baseball league to take the place of the men’s league. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was formed in 1943 and lasted until 1954. The organization provided over 500 women the opportunity to play national baseball. The 1992 film starting Gena Davis, A League of Their Own, portrayed a fictionalized version of these women’s stories.

American Women's Voluntary Services members, 1942

During the war, women joined volunteer organizations to support the needs of the home front and the troops. Groups that volunteered their efforts in the war included: The United Services Organization (USO), the American Red Cross, the American Women’s Voluntary Service (AWVS), and the United States Citizens Defense Corps. The AWVS, founded on the British model of the Women’s Voluntary Service, was formed in January 1940. Its volunteers, which numbered approximately 325,000 women, engaged in a range of activities including: working in canteens, selling war bonds, taking photographs, and driving ambulances. The AWVS was an interracial organization which included African American women and other minority groups.

The United Services Organization (USO) was founded in 1941. It was created as a non-profit organization to support the needs of troops stationed throughout the world. During the war, it provided rest centers for soldiers where they could get a hot meal and socialize with others. The USO also organized special performances such as musical concerts and comedy skits with Hollywood celebrities to entertain soldiers.

American Red Cross civilian first aid class, 1941

Created in 1881 by Clara Barton, the American Red Cross was an organization that was already well established before the war began. During WWII, the American Red Cross carried out a number of vital activities, including the collection of blood for the medical needs of the military and the home front. The Red Cross organized eleven volunteer corps which carried out a number of different activities in wartime. The corps included the Arts and Skills Corps, the Canteen Corps, the Motor Corps, Volunteer Nurse’s Aide Crops, Prisoner of War Relief Corps, and the Victory Book Campaign.

USO volunteer at a YWCA, 1943

The Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) was created in May 1941 by the federal government. It organized the United States Citizens Defense Corps which oversaw and trained volunteers to help with civil defense on the home front. Members served in a number of different roles, including: air raid wardens, fire watchers, nurses’ aides, and rescue operations. They helped civilians with emergency food and housing.


Post by michael mills » 17 Feb 2004, 16:46

The above is rather imprecise history.

A large number of Russians and Ukrainians, mostly young people from the towns and cities (the peasants were needed on the farms to grow food) was transported to Germany for labour. But to describe them as "slave labour" is a distortion of reality they are better described as conscripted labour, analogous to persons conscripted into the armed forces.

The conscripted labourers were actually paid a wage, albeit one below the German wage level for comparable work, and reduced by deductions for food and lodging. They were often poorly housed, and subject to strict discipline, which resulted in a considerable number being sent to concentration camps for minor infractions of the rules.

Only the labour of concentration camp prisoners can truly be designated as slave labour, as the prisoners received no wages and were subject to the harshest possible treatment. The distinction between conscripted labour and slave labour is in fact made by the authorities handling claims for compensation under recent German legislation former concentration camp prisoners receive more compensation than former conscripted labourers, the latter receiving only the difference between the wages paid them and the equivalent German wage.

And it is a gross distortion to say that labour conscription of people from the occupied Soviet Union was a means of gradual destruction. The actual experience of the conscripted labourers, the vast majority of whom survived labour in Germany to be returned to the Soviet Union (where they were often treated as collaborators) does not bear that assertion out. It seems that the German Government wanted to continue using conscripted (or even volunteer) labour from the East, performing much the same function as the post-war "guest workers".

As for the assertion that Russians and Ukrainians were serfs of the German occupiers, as I have pointed out before they had been reduced to serfdom by their own government, well before the German occupation. To a certain extent the German occupiers continued that existing serfdom by retaining the collective farms, which were the most efficient way of producing the food Germany needed. However, the German authorities were switching to a policy of land reform, giving land into the private ownership of peasants who had proved themselves reliable and supportive of the German occupation.

A good book to read on conscripted labour (not concentration camp labour) is "Hitler's Foreign Workers : Enforced Foreign Labor in Germany under the Third Reich", by Ulrich Herbert. It will clear up a lot of misconceptions.

Information on the German organisation of agricultural labour in occupied Belorussia and the land reform program can be found in the book "Kalkulierte Morde", by Christian Gerlach.


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Update history for Office 2013

Certain Office 2013 products are kept up to date automatically by using a technology called Click-to-Run. If you'd like to verify that you're up to date, check your Office version number and manually update Office if necessary.

The most current version of Office 2013 is 15.0.5357.1000, which was released on June 8, 2021.

To check your version of Office, do the following:

Open any Office 2013 application, such as Word or Excel.

Choose File > Account.

Under Product Information, note the version number below Office Updates.

If the version number matches the most current version, you're up to date. If not, you can manually update to get the latest version of Office 2013. To update Office, follow these steps.

List of release dates, version numbers, and fix information for Office 2013 updates

The following table provides a list of updates for Office 2013, with the most recent release date listed first. The table includes the version number for the release and a link to the Microsoft Knowledge Base (KB) article, if available, that contains information about the fixes that are included in the update.

New versions contain all the updates contained in previous versions.

The KB articles listed below are for reference purposes only. Click-to-Run updates include all the fixes listed in the KB articles. You don't need to download the separate updates listed in the KB articles.


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