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Zeal AM-131 - History

Zeal AM-131 - History



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Zeal

(AM-131: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32'0"; dr. 10'9"
(mean); s. 18.1 k. (tl.); cpl. 105; a. 1 3", 2 40mm.;
cl. Auk)

Zeal (AM-131) was laid down on 12 January 1942 at Chickasaw, Ala., by the Gulf Shipbuilding Co.; launched on 15 September 1942; sponsored by Mrs. John M. Hughes; and commissioned on 9 July 1943 Lt. Comdr. H. M. Jones, USNR, in command.

After a visit to New Orleans for deperming, Zeal got underway late in July for shakedown training en route to Norfolk, VA. During that cruise, she conducted type training out of Key West, Fla. Between 9 and 30 August, post-shakedown availability at the Norfolk Navy Yard occupied her time. On 3 September she received orders to proceed via Guantanamo Bay to the Panama Canal. She arrived in Guantanamo Bay on 8 September and, after loading supplies, got underway the following day for the Canal Zone. She reached Coco Solo on 12 September and operated from there for the next month. On 12 October, she departed the Pacific terminus of the canal, bound for the southwestern Pacific. En route, the minesweeper made stops at the Galapagos Islands, Bora Bora, and Tutuila. At Suva in the Fiji Islands, she received orders detaching her from her unit to serve as escort for the tanker SS Pacific Sun on a voyage from Suva to the New Hebrides Islands. She arrived at Espiritu Santo on 2 November and, three days later, departed on another convoy escort mission.

That mission set the pattern for her first 11 months in the western Pacific. She escorted convoys between the islands of the southwestern Pacific which by that time were becoming increasingly more of a rear area. She also conducted antisubmarine patrols. For the most part, the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides Islands, Fiji Islands, and the Marshall Islands constituted her zone of operations.

In August 1944, however, she began training for her first amphibious operation. Operating from Tulagi and Florida Island, she practiced minesweeping maneuvers drilled at gunnery, and participated in rehearsal landings. On 8 September, she got underway with the other units of Mine Division (MinDiv) 14 for the Palau Islands. She arrived off Angaur in the Palaus on the morning of 15 September and spent the next two days sweeping the approaches to the invasion beaches. The sweeps of Angaur, however, netted her no mines. On the 17th, she moved north to Kossol Roads and began screening the fleet anchorage located there against submarine attack.

Soon thereafter, she received orders to proceed to Ulithi Atoll. She arrived there on 21 September and began running sweeps of the lagoon. Here, Zeal finally succeeded in furfilling the mission for which she had originally been built, sweeping eight mines during the anchorage clearing operation. She remained at Ulithi until 26 September at which time she departed the atoll in company with a convoy of LST's bound for Hollandia, New Guinea, where she made a brief stop on the 29th. From there, the ship continued on to Finschhafen and thence to Seeadler Harbor on Manus Island, where she arrived on 2 October.

Zeal remained at Manus for eight days. On 10 October, she got underway with a convoy of minecraft bound for Leyte Gulf. During the first few days of the transit, weather caused no problems, but, during the latter part, it steadily worsened. By the time Zeal arrived in Leyte Gulf, a storm approaching typhoon proportions had worked itself up. On 17 October, the minesweeper began the pre invasion sweep of the Leyte assault beaches on schedule. The storm, however, reached the typhoon stage at that point and forced her to retire from the area.

The typhoon abated that evening, and, on the morning of the 18th, Zeal returned to resume her sweep. That day brought the warship her first contact with the Japanese. After she had cut a few moored mines, a "Val" dive-bomber flew over and dropped two bombs which missed nearby Velocity (AM-128) by about 200 yards. The Japanese plane made its attack and retired before any gun crews could man their battle stations. Over the next few days, Zeal sighted several enemy planes; but the attack on the 18th remained her only close contact with the enemy until after she completed her minesweeping chores on the 23d and moved farther into the gulf near Dulag to join the fire support group there.

During her stay in the gulf, Zeal missed the Battle for Leyte Gulf but participated in some engagements with enemy land-based aircraft. One particularly intense air attack came on 25 October when Japanese planes were attacking the ships from almost every angle. A twin engine "Betty" bomber flew up Zeal's starboard side and drew the combined fire of her 3-inch and 20-millimeter batteries. A few seconds later, that intruder burst into flames and splashed into the sea. Zeal escaped the air raids with little or no damage, and her crew suffered only one slight casualty. On 28 October, she stood out of Leyte Gulf on her way back to Manus. The minesweeper entered Seeadler Harbor on 5 November.

Nine days later, she began the first leg of a voyage back to the United States. Steaming via Pearl Harbor she arrived in Portland, Oreg., on 4~December. She was overhauled there at the Albina Shipyards during December and the first two months of 1945. She completed repairs and departed Portland on 4 March, bound for refresher and minesweeping training along the coast of California. That employment occupied her for about a month.

On 2 April 1945, she departed the west coast to return to the war in the western Pacific. After stops at Pearl Harbor and at Eniwetok Atoll, the minesweeper arrived at Kerama Retto in the Ryukyus on 21 May to join in the last campaign of World War II—the seven week old assault on Okinawa. During her tour of duty at Okinawa, Zeal served on the radar picket stations situated around the island and at some distance from which to provide early warning of air attack from enemy bases on Kyushu and Formosa.

Though she witnessed a number of kamikaze and conventional air attacks on other ships, she suffered only one such scrape herself. On the night of 27 May, a Japanese float plane started a run on her, but her antiaircraft batteries quickly discouraged him.

Zeal remained at Okinawa until the beginning of July at which time she embarked upon some large-scale minesweeping operations. The first, designated Operation "Juneau " was conducted in a 60-mile rectangle in the East China Sea. She returned to Okinawa late in July to conduct an availability in preparation for a similar operation, code-named "Skagway." On 15 August, while she was still undergoing repairs, Japan capitulated.

A week later, she departed Okinawa on her way to the "Skagway" area, but the mission was postponed

because of the more pressing need of sweeping Japanese home waters for the occupation forces. By late August, she was on her way to northern Honshu and, on 6 September, reported for duty at Ominato Naval Base. She swept mines at that location until 19 October, at which time she received orders to head for Sasebo. She arrived in Sasebo on 24 October but departed two days later to participate in Operation "Klondike"—another major minesweep conducted in the East China Sea. "Klondike" lasted until 8 November on which date she returned to Sasebo to begin repairs.

Zeal completed repairs on 26 November and departed Sasebo for another series of sweeps at various locations. These she conducted in the vicinity of Formosa and the Pescadores Islands, operating out of Kiirun, Formosa. At the conclusion of that assignment, she spent the holidays at Shanghai, China. She departed Shanghai on 3 January 1946 and arrived in Sasebo on the 5th. Ten days later, she began the first leg of her homeward voyage.

After stops at Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor, she entered San Diego on 9 February. Assigned to the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet, Zeal was placed out of commission on 4 June 1946. She remained inactive until 19 December 1951 when she was recommissioned at San Diego.

The minesweeper remained on the west coast until 19 May 1952 when she got underway for the western Pacific. After a stop at Pearl Harbor late in May, Zeal continued her voyage west and arrived in Sasebo on 18 June. On the 27th, she departed Sasebo for Korean waters and minesweeping operations near Wonsan, Hungnam, and Chongjin. During those operations, she came under fire of enemy shore batteries several times but sustained no damage. In August, she participated in the rescue of 26 of Sarsi's (ATF-111) crewmen after that tug had hit a mine and sunk. She served in the Korean combat zone until the fall of 1952. She departed Sasebo on l9 October and, after stops at Midway and Oahu, arrived in Long Beach on 15 November.

For more than two years, Zeal conducted operations —almost exclusively training evolutions—out of Long Beach, San Diego, and other west coast ports. On 21 January 1955, she departed Long Beach and embarked upon another deployment with the 7th Fleet. En route she was redesignated MSF-131. She reached Sasebo on 15 February and, for the next six months, conducted operations off the western coast of Korea as well as in the Sea of Japan. Zeal departed Yokosuka on 10 August and, after stops at Midway and Oahu, arrived in Long Beach on 5 September. She conducted west coast operations until decommissioned the following summer on 6 July 1956. She remained with the Pacific Reserve Fleet for just over a decade. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 December 1966, and her stripped hull was sunk as a target on 9 January 1967.

Zeal earned four battle stars during World War II and an additional four for her postwar minesweeping service. During the Korean conflict, she earned one battle star.


ASBESTOS EXPOSURES SUFFERED ON NAVY SHIPS

For decades, the attorneys at Levy Konigsberg have proudly represented Navy veterans and their families. Between the 1940s and 1990s, hundreds of thousands of sailors toiled in the cramped workspaces of naval vessels, operating machinery and equipment that kept their ships seaworthy. Unbeknownst to our veterans, much of the equipment they operated and regularly repaired contained numerous asbestos components that poisoned their lungs. Years of investigation and litigation has revealed that the companies who enriched themselves through government contracts to supply safe equipment to the Navy were aware of the link between asbestos exposure from their products and lung disease.

Much of the asbestos exposure suffered aboard these vessels occurred in the boiler rooms and engineering spaces. Sailors of various ratings, including boilertenders, machinist mates, electricians, firemen, and equipment operators, regularly worked in poorly ventilated, cramped workspaces, operating and maintaining various pieces of equipment that kept the vessels moving. Equipment, including boilers, pumps, valves, tanks, condensers, and turbines, required around-the-clock oversight, and regular maintenance.

Asbestos exposure aboard these vessels was extensive. For example, in the engineering spaces, sailors were required to understand, operate and repair numerous pumps. Generally, each engine room contained one primary pump and one backup pump, if not more, in case of a pump malfunction. A variety of pumps, including overboard brine pumps, condensate pumps, fuel pumps, water pumps, condenser pumps, fire pumps and bilge pumps, carried out different operations, but all contained numerous pieces of asbestos insulation. Working in close proximity to each other, sailors regularly opened these pumps, which first required removing thick asbestos insulation from the pump’s body. Then, using a knife or other tool, sailors would meticulously remove the worn asbestos gaskets and packing from the pump, which released thousands of asbestos fibers into the air. Once clean, sailors would install new asbestos components, often times fabricating gaskets and packing by hand from sheets of asbestos.

Other equipment in the engine rooms required just as much maintenance. Reduction gears, deaerating feed tanks, turbo generators, turbines, valves of all sizes, and air compressors were installed through the engineering spaces, and required constant oversight and maintenance. Like the pumps installed in these engine rooms, much of this equipment was heavily insulated with asbestos fiber due to the heat produced by the machinery. Working in close proximity, sailors removed this insulation, and regularly inspected the machinery for defects and maintenance needs. Various asbestos components, including gaskets, packing material, block, rope and insulation was regularly installed and replaced during cruises, to ensure proper performance while at sea.

Similarly, asbestos exposure was rampant in naval boiler rooms. Equipment regularly installed in these workspaces included boilers, forced air draft blowers, feed pumps, booster pumps, fuel oil service pumps, feed water tanks, fresh water tanks, valves and air compressors. Sailors in the boiler rooms were required to understand how to operate, maintain and repair all of this equipment. During cruises, sailors climbed into the boilers to scrape the machine clean, often removing worn gaskets, packing material and rope. Because this machinery was in constant use, around-the-clock maintenance of the machinery was required, which required regular changing of worn asbestos gaskets and packing.

In 2008, Levy Konigsberg represented Douglas Pokorney, in a lawsuit against several corporations whose products were installed in the boiler room of the USS Roan. Mr. Pokorney alleged that he was regularly exposed to vast amounts of asbestos dust from Foster Wheeler boilers installed on the USS Roan, while carrying out his boiler room duties. A Syracuse jury agreed, awarding $5 million dollars, and found Foster Wheeler liable for a significant portion of the damages due to Mr. Pokorney’s regular exposure to gaskets, insulation and other asbestos components installed on the ship’s boilers. Like many other defendants, Foster Wheeler attempted to place responsibility on the Navy, despite knowing for decades that a link existed between exposure to asbestos and lung disease. This argument was rejected by the jury. For more information on this case, please click here .

Some of the Navy ships where we have confirmed that many workers suffered significant asbestos exposures include the following:

• SS Atlantic
• SS Borinquen
• SS Carrier Pigeon
• SS Cape Nome
• SS Colgate Victory
• SS Export Champion
• SS Export Courier
• SS Exminster
• SS Flying Arrow
• SS Flying Hawk
• SS Flying Trader
• SS Frederick E. Williamson (1944)
• SS Hawaiian Planter
• SS Hong Kong Transport
• SS Manhattan (1962)
• SS Marine Adder
• SS Marine Jumper
• SS Marine Tiger
• SS Matsonia (aka Etolin)
• SS Mormaclark
• SS Mormacmail (1946)
• SS Mormacmar
• SS Mormacsun
• SS Mormacsurf
• SS Muhlenberg Victory
• SS Sea Pegasus
• SS Sea Tiger
• SS Wabash Victory
• SS Yale Victory
• USCGC Acacia (WAGL-406)
• USS Admiral E.W. Eberle (AP-123)
• USS Alamosa (AK-156)
• USS Albany (CA-123)
• USS Albert T. Harris (DE-447)
• USS Alcor (AK-259)
• USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617)
• USS Alhena (AKA-9)
• USS Allagash (AO-97)
• USS America (CV-66)
• USS Archer-Fish (SS-311)
• USS Ashland (LSD-1)
• USS Baltimore (CA-68)
• USS Benham (DD-796)
• USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640)
• USS Benner (DD-807)
• USS Bennington (CV-20)
• USS Betelgeuse (AK-28, AKA-11)
• USS Betelgeuse (AK-260)
• USS Billfish (SSN-676)
• USS Black (DD-666)
• USS Block Island (CVE-106)
• USS Blue (DD-744)
• USNS Blue Jacket (T-AF-51)
• USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31)
• USS Boston (CA-69)
• USS Boxer (CV-21)
• USS Bridget (DE-1024)
• USS Brinkley Bass (DD-887)
• USS Bristol (DD-857)
• USS Brownson (DD-868)
• USS Bunker Hill (CV-17)
• USS Burdo (APD-133)
• USS Cadmus (AR-14)
• USS Canberra (CA-70)
• USS Canisteo (AO-99)
• USS Carter Hall (LSD-3)
• USS Casa Grande (LSD-13)
• USS Casablanca (CVE-55)
• USS Cassin (DD-372)
• USS Cassin Young (DD-793)
• USS Catoctin (AGC-5)
• USS Chandeleur (AV-10)
• USS Charles H. Roan (DD-853)
• USS Charles J. Badger (DD-657)
• USS Charles R. Ware (DD-865)
• USS Charles S. Sperry (DD-697)
• USS Chicago (CA-136)
• USS Chipola (AO-63)
• USS Cimarron (AO-22)
• USS Clamagore (SS-343)
• USS Cleveland (CL-55)
• USS Collett (DD-730)
• USS Comfort (AH-6)
• USS Compton (DD-705)
• USS Cone (DD-866)
• USS Constellation (CV-64)
• USS Coontz (DDG-40)
• USS Coral Sea (CV-43)
• USS Croaker (SS-246)
• USNS Curtiss (T-AVB-4)
• USS Custer (APA-40)
• USS Dahlgren (DLG-12)
• USS Darter (SS-576)
• USS Davis (DD-937)
• USS Delong (DE-684)
• USS Des Moines (CA-134)
• USS Dewey (DDG-45)
• USS Dixie (AD-14)
• USS Donner (LSD-20)
• USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779)
• USS Du Pont (DD-941)
• USS DuPage (APA-41)
• USS English (DD-696)
• USS Entemedor (SS-340)
• USS Enterprise (CV-6)
• USS Enterprise (CVN-65)
• USS Essex (CV-9)
• USS Evans (DE-1023)
• USS Everglades (AD-24)
• USS Fargo (CL-106)
• USS Farragut (DLG-6)
• USS Fayette (APA-43)
• USS Finback (SSBN-670)
• USS Fiske (DD-842)
• USS Flasher (SS-249)
• USS Fletcher (DD-445)
• USS Flying Fish (SS-229)
• USS Flying Fish (SSN-673)
• USS Foote (DD-511)
• USS Forrestal (CV-59)
• USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21)
• USNS Pvt. Francis X. McGraw (T-AK-241)
• USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42)
• USS Fred T. Berry (DD-858)
• USS Fulton (AS-11)
• USS Gatling (DD-671)
• USNS Geiger (T-AP-197)
• USS George Bancroft (SSBN-643)
• USS Gillette (DE-681)
• USS Glenard P. Lipscomb (SSN-685)
• USS Glennon (DD-840)
• USS Greenling (SSN-614)
• USS Grundy (APA-111)
• USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44)
• USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5)
• USS Gurke (DD-783)
• USS Hailey (DD-556)
• USS Hambleton (DD-455)
• USS Hammerberg (DE-1015)
• USS Hanson (DD-832)
• USS Harder (SS-568)
• USS Haynsworth (DD-700)
• USS Hazelwood (DD-536)
• USS Heermann (DD-532)
• USS Helena (CA-75)
• USS Henrico (APA-45)
• USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427)
• USS Holder (DD-819)
• USS Hopewell (DD-681)
• USS Hornet (CV-12)
• USS Howard D. Crow (DE-252)
• USS Hugh Purvis (DD-709)
• USS Hull (DD-945)
• USS Hunley (AS-31)
• USS Independence (CV-62)
• USS Intrepid (CV-11)
• USS Iowa (BB-61)
• USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2)
• USS James E. Kyes (DD-787)
• USS John King (DDG-3)
• USS John Paul Jones (DD-932)
• USS John R. Pierce (DD-753)
• USS Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. (DD-850)
• USS Kearsarge (CV-33)
• USS Kennebec (AO-36)
• USS Keppler (DD-765)
• USS Kidd (DD-661)
• USS King (DDG-41 )
• USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)
• USS Krishna (ARL-38)
• USCGC Kukui (WAK-186)
• USS Kyne (DE-744)
• USS L.Y. Spear (AS-36)
• USS Lafayette (SSBN-616)
• USS Laffey (DD-724)
• USS Lake Champlain (CV-39)
• USS Lexington (CV-16)
• USS Leyte (CV-32)
• USS Liberty (AGTR-5)
• USS Little Rock (CL-92)
• USS LST-274
• USS LST-316
• USS Ludlow (DD-438)
• USS Lynde McCormick (DDG-8)
• USS L.Y. Spears (AS-36)
• USS Macon (CA-132)
• USS Major (DE-796)
• USS Marias (AO-57)
• USS Markab (AD-21)
• USS Marlboro (APB-38)
• USS Mars (AFS-1)
• USS Meade (DD-602)
• USS Midway (CV-41)
• USS Missouri (BB-63)
• USS Mitscher (DL-2)
• USS Monongahela (AO-42)
• USS Monrovia (APA-31)
• USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7)
• USS Murphy (DD-603)
• USS Nantahala (AO-60)
• USS Narwhal (SS-167)
• USS Narwhal (SSN-671)
• USS Nautilus (SSN-571)
• USS Neches (AO-47)
• USS Nevada (BB-36)
• USS New Jersey (BB-62)
• USS Newport News (CA-148)
• USS Nitro (AE-2)
• USS Noa (DD-841)
• USS North Carolina (BB-55)
• USS Northampton (CLC-1)
• USS O’Hare (DD-889)
• USS Oak Hill (LSD-7)
• USS Ohio (SSGN-726)
• USS Okinawa (LPH-3)
• USS Oklahoma City (CL-91)
• USS Oregon City (CA-122)
• USS Orion (AS-18)
• USS Oriskany (CV-34)
• USS Osberg (DE-538)
• USS Patoka (AO-9)
• USS Philip (DD-498)
• USS Picuda (SS-382)
• USS Pinkney (APH-2)
• USS Piper (SS-409)
• USS Pocono (AGC-16)
• USS Prairie (AD-15)
• USS Prevail (AM-107)
• USS Princeton (CV-37)
• USS Providence (CL-82)
• USS Raleigh (LPD-1)
• USS Randolph (CV-15)
• USS Renshaw (DD-499)
• USS Renville (APA-227)
• USS Richard B. Russell (SSN-687)
• USS Richard E. Byrd (DDG-23)
• USS Richard S. Edwards (DD-950)
• USS Ringgold (DD-500)
• USS Robert A. Owens (DD-827)
• USS Robert D. Conrad (T-AGOR-3)
• USS Robert H. McCard (DD-822)
• USS Rodman (DD-456)
• USS Salem (CA-139)
• USS San Pablo (AVP-30)
• USS Saratoga (CV-3)
• USS Saratoga (CV-60)
• USS Sarsfield (DD-837)
• USS Saufley (DD-465)
• USS Schroeder (DD-501)
• USS Sea Robin (SS-407)
• USNS Sgt. Archer T. Gammon (T-AK-243)
• USS Shenandoah (AD-26)
• USS Shreveport (LPD-12)
• USS Sierra (AD-18)
• USS Sigsbee (DD-502)
• USS Sims (DE-154)
• USS Skagit (AKA-105)
• USS Soley (DD-707)
• USS Somers (DD-947)
• USS South Dakota (BB-57)
• USS Southerland (DD-743)
• USS Springfield (CL-66)
• USS Stormes (DD-780)
• USS Stribling (DD-867)
• USS Surfbird (AM-383)
• USS Sylvania (AFS-2)
• USS Tennessee (BB-43)
• USS Thetis Bay (CVE-90)
• USS Thomas J. Gary (DE-326)
• USS Ticonderoga (CV-14)
• USS Topeka (CL-67)
• USS Trigger (SS-564)
• USS Trout (SS-566)
• USS Turner (DD-834)
• USS Turner Joy (DD-951)
• USS Tusk (SS-426)
• USNS Upshur (T-AP-198)
• USS Valley Forge (CV-45)
• USS Vancouver (LPD-2)
• USS Waccamaw (AO-109)
• USS Waldron (DD-699)
• USS Walton (DE-361)
• USS Warrington (DD-843)
• USS Wasatch (AGC-9)
• USS Wasp (CV-18)
• USS Wilkinson (DL-5)
• USS William R. Rush (DD-714)
• USS Willis A. Lee (DD-929)
• USS Windsor (APA-55) SS Excelsior
• USS Woolsey (DD-437)
• USS Worcester (CL-144)
• USS Yellowstone (AD-27)
• USS Yorktown (CV-10)
• USS Zeal (AM-131)

If you or a loved one served aboard a Navy ship and have developed an asbestos-related disease, including mesothelioma or lung cancer, please call our office today for a free consultation.


The Veteran's Collection

Two examples of the correct placement of the Navy SSI, worn during WWII. Shown on these uniforms is the Amphibious Forces Personnel patch.

Dress uniforms of the United States Navy have been remained relatively consistent, holding fast to their traditional appearance since the mid-nineteenth century. From the pullover jumper with the flap and neckerchief to the beautifully embroidered eagle and specialty marks of the rate badge, the uniform seldom strays too far from its unique appearance.

There have been some departures or design variances that left traditionalists scratching their heads, wondering why the navy brass seemingly tried to make the naval uniforms take on traits from the sibling military branches.

One of the most significantly negative changes occurred during the 1970s when the jumper uniforms (both service dress versions – blues and whites) were summarily eliminated in favor of the vanilla-stylings of a simple button-down white shirt and black trousers (known as “salt and peppers”) with a combination cover. The change was short-lived as the jumpers were re-instituted in the early 1980s and have been in use since. Due to their unpopularity, these uniforms draw little or no interest from collectors.

Another, less impactful change that was applied to the navy dress uniform was far less sweeping and seemed to set apart specific naval components rather than provide unity across the naval services. During World War II, with the ranks swelling to all-time highs, obviously necessary due to the manning requirements of a nearly 6,100-ship fleet, the specialized nature of certain functions had emerged into the spotlight, drawing significant attention from the rest of the armed forces and American public. The need to set these services apart arose, somewhat organically, as units began to adopt uniform concepts from the other branches.

Shoulder sleeve insignia (SSI) had been in use across the U.S. Army as a means for identifying which units soldiers belonged to, the Navy had never previously authorized similar markings for their uniforms (other than hat tallies for the blue flat or “Donald Duck” hats).

The uniform shirt bore only rate and rating as well as distinguishing marks at the onset of World War II. However, by 1943, sailors in the minesweeper community had begun affixing an embroidered red, white and blue circular-designed patch (representing a painted device seen aboard mine sweeper vessels) to their left shoulders, directly above the rate badge. The commanding officer of the minesweeper, USS Zeal (AM-131) seeking to determine if such a patch was authorized for wear, sent a letter to navy brass. The Chief of Naval Personnel responded on June 24, 1943 that the patch was not permitted for wear. Despite the rejection, sailors continued to wear the SSI.

As the war progressed, other naval components began to adopt shoulder patches and approval from the higher-ups for these patches began to trickle down.

Officially Approved U.S. Navy Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (with approval date):

  • Amphibious Forces Personnel – January 1944
  • Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) – September 1944
  • Minecraft Personnel – December 1944
  • Naval Construction Battalion (Sea Bees) – October 1944
Approved for wear in early 1944, this Naval Amphibious Forces patch has a nearly–identical U.S. Army counterpart (the same gold emblem instead on a field of blue) was the first of a handful of Navy SSI (Image source: eBay). This Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) patch was approved for wear in September, 1944 (source: eBay). Minecraft Personnel SSI from 1944.
Authorized “SEABEES” patch (source: National WWII Museum). This variation of the authorized SeaBees patch also originates during WWII but incorporates the abbreviation for the unit.

Unauthorized SSI:

  • Amphibious Forces (Gator) Patch
  • Minesweeper Personnel Patch
  • Harbor Defense Personnel Patch
  • Mosquito Boat Patch
This unauthorized Naval Amphibious Forces patch started appearing sometime in 1943 (source: eBay). The navy disallowed this Mine Sweeper Personnel patch in 1943, yet that did not prevent its use in the fleet during the war. (source: LJ Militaria). Though unauthorized, this Harbor Defense Personnel (also known as Harbor Net Tender) is for wear on the dress blue uniform (source: eBay).
Manufactured for wear on dress blues, this is a fine example of the un-approved Mosquito Boat Personnel patch (source: eBay). This white variant of the unauthorized Mosquito Boat Personnel patch has never been worn on a uniform (source: eBay).

On January 17, 1947, the Navy once again embraced tradition and officially abolished all shoulder sleeve insignia.

Due to their considerable production, the authorized SSI patches are plentiful and readily affordable for militaria collectors. The unofficial insignia will be more challenging to locate and in some cases be considerably more expensive to acquire.


A Temporary Break From Tradition: Navy Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

Two examples of the correct placement of the Navy SSI, worn during WWII. Shown on these uniforms is the Amphibious Forces Personnel patch.

Dress uniforms of the United States Navy have been remained relatively consistent, holding fast to their traditional appearance since the mid-nineteenth century. From the pullover jumper with the flap and neckerchief to the beautifully embroidered eagle and specialty marks of the rate badge, the uniform seldom strays too far from its unique appearance.

There have been some departures or design variances that left traditionalists scratching their heads, wondering why the navy brass seemingly tried to make the naval uniforms take on traits from the sibling military branches.

One of the most significantly negative changes occurred during the 1970s when the jumper uniforms (both service dress versions – blues and whites) were summarily eliminated in favor of the vanilla-stylings of a simple button-down white shirt and black trousers (known as “salt and peppers”) with a combination cover. The change was short-lived as the jumpers were re-instituted in the early 1980s and have been in use since. Due to their unpopularity, these uniforms draw little or no interest from collectors.

Another, less impactful change that was applied to the navy dress uniform was far less sweeping and seemed to set apart specific naval components rather than provide unity across the naval services. During World War II, with the ranks swelling to all-time highs, obviously necessary due to the manning requirements of a nearly 6,100-ship fleet, the specialized nature of certain functions had emerged into the spotlight, drawing significant attention from the rest of the armed forces and American public. The need to set these services apart arose, somewhat organically, as units began to adopt uniform concepts from the other branches.

Shoulder sleeve insignia (SSI) had been in use across the U.S. Army as a means for identifying which units soldiers belonged to, the Navy had never previously authorized similar markings for their uniforms (other than hat tallies for the blue flat or “Donald Duck” hats).

The uniform shirt bore only rate and rating as well as distinguishing marks at the onset of World War II. However, by 1943, sailors in the minesweeper community had begun affixing an embroidered red, white and blue circular-designed patch (representing a painted device seen aboard mine sweeper vessels) to their left shoulders, directly above the rate badge. The commanding officer of the minesweeper, USS Zeal (AM-131) seeking to determine if such a patch was authorized for wear, sent a letter to navy brass. The Chief of Naval Personnel responded on June 24, 1943 that the patch was not permitted for wear. Despite the rejection, sailors continued to wear the SSI.

As the war progressed, other naval components began to adopt shoulder patches and approval from the higher-ups for these patches began to trickle down.

Officially Approved U.S. Navy Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (with approval date):

  • Amphibious Forces Personnel – January 1944
  • Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) – September 1944
  • Minecraft Personnel – December 1944
  • Naval Construction Battalion (Sea Bees) – October 1944
Approved for wear in early 1944, this Naval Amphibious Forces patch has a nearly–identical U.S. Army counterpart (the same gold emblem instead on a field of blue) was the first of a handful of Navy SSI (Image source: eBay). This Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) patch was approved for wear in September, 1944 (source: eBay). Minecraft Personnel SSI from 1944.
Authorized “SEABEES” patch (source: National WWII Museum). This variation of the authorized SeaBees patch also originates during WWII but incorporates the abbreviation for the unit.

Unauthorized SSI:

  • Amphibious Forces (Gator) Patch
  • Minesweeper Personnel Patch
  • Harbor Defense Personnel Patch
  • Mosquito Boat Patch
This unauthorized Naval Amphibious Forces patch started appearing sometime in 1943 (source: eBay). The navy disallowed this Mine Sweeper Personnel patch in 1943, yet that did not prevent its use in the fleet during the war. (source: LJ Militaria). Though unauthorized, this Harbor Defense Personnel (also known as Harbor Net Tender) is for wear on the dress blue uniform (source: eBay).
Manufactured for wear on dress blues, this is a fine example of the un-approved Mosquito Boat Personnel patch (source: eBay). This white variant of the unauthorized Mosquito Boat Personnel patch has never been worn on a uniform (source: eBay).

On January 17, 1947, the Navy once again embraced tradition and officially abolished all shoulder sleeve insignia.

Due to their considerable production, the authorized SSI patches are plentiful and readily affordable for militaria collectors. The unofficial insignia will be more challenging to locate and in some cases be considerably more expensive to acquire.


"Operation Chastise" Set to Breach New Film

A release from Universal Studios via PR Newswire was published Aug 31, 2006 about a remake of Operation Chastise the 617 Squadron raid on the German Dams during WW II.

Along with the usual hype that "newly declassified information" will allow them to make it better - they touted that the new era of movie graphics which will allow some of the scenes to be filmed even better than the 1955 version.

Hopefully Peter Jackson does not "King Kong" it by having the Avro Lancasters zooming up 4000' in 15 seconds to avoid a German flak tower since with computer graphics you can do that. Creating a visual effect that is BELIEVEABLE vs just creating because you can are two totally different things - and Peter Jackson has not learned that yet - watch King Kong and you can see it! (He had to make it believable in Lord Of the Rings - else he would never work again - with a worldwide following of the books that meant deviating from the books would never be tolerated!)


This photo of USS Zeal AM 131 is exactly as you see it with the matte printed around it. You will have the choice of two print sizes, either 8″x 10″ or 11″x 14″. The print will be ready for framing, or you can add an additional matte of your own choosing then you can mount it in a larger frame. Your personalized print will look awesome when you frame it.

We can PERSONALIZE your print of the USS Zeal AM 131 with your name, rank and years served and there is NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE for this option. After you place your order you can simply email us or indicate in the notes section of your payment what you would like printed. For example:

United States Navy Sailor
YOUR NAME HERE
Proudly Served: Your Years Here

This would make a nice gift for yourself or that special Navy veteran you may know, therefore, it would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

The watermark “Great Naval Images” will NOT be on your print.

Media Type Used:

The USS Zeal AM 131 photo is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high-resolution printer and should last many years. The unique natural woven texture canvas offers a special and distinctive look that can only be captured on canvas. Most sailors loved his ship. It was his life. Where he had a tremendous responsibility and lived with his closest shipmates. As one gets older, the appreciation for the ship and the Navy experience will get stronger. The personalized print shows ownership, accomplishment and an emotion that never goes away. When you walk by the print you will feel the person or the Navy experience in your heart.

We have been in business since 2005 and our reputation for having great products and customer satisfaction is indeed exceptional. You will, therefore, enjoy this product guaranteed.


Zeal AM-131 - History

passion, fervor, ardor, enthusiasm, zeal mean intense emotion compelling action. passion applies to an emotion that is deeply stirring or ungovernable. gave in to his passions fervor implies a warm and steady emotion. read the poem aloud with great fervor ardor suggests warm and excited feeling likely to be fitful or short-lived. the ardor of their honeymoon soon faded enthusiasm applies to lively or eager interest in or admiration for a proposal, cause, or activity. never showed much enthusiasm for sports zeal implies energetic and unflagging pursuit of an aim or devotion to a cause. preaches with fanatical zeal


Zeal AM-131 - History

Nine days later, Zeal began the first leg of a voyage back to the United States. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, she arrived in Portland, Oregon, on 4 December. She was overhauled there at the Albina Shipards during December and the first two months of 1945. She completed repairs and departed Portland on 4 March, bound for refresher and minesweeping training along the coast of California. That employment occupied her for about a month.

In 2014, Muni sent 1056, the first from the original batch of sixteen to be overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. The entire first batch of sixteen is scheduled to be rebuilt at Brookville the next cars to be sent were 1051, 1060, and 1059 in that order followed (in indeterminate order) by 1055, 1062, and 1063. The first streetcar to re-enter service, 1051, was re-dedicated to Harvey Milk in March 2017, and was followed back into service by 1056.

All of these cars were purchased by Twin Cities Rapid Transit in 1946. They were sold to Newark in 1953 and ran on the Newark City Subway until replacement by modern light rail vehicles in 2001. The San Francisco Municipal Railway acquired these cars in 2004 and had the cars overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. Some of the cars were put in service in early 2007, but were taken out of service for wiring problems. These problems were eventually repaired. All these cars are single-end cars.

Overhauled and her crew restored to health, Midnight arrived Port Royal, South Carolina, 16 October for service in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For almost 2 years she continued this duty, a strong link in the chain which the Union Navy had forged and was drawing ever tighter around the Confederacy. On 3 February 1864 she captured British schooner Defy off Doboy Light, Georgia, sailing from Nassau to Beaufort, North Carolina with a cargo of salt for the South. Midnight was ordered to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 August for repairs.

The English localization of Golden Fantasia Cross, titled Umineko: Golden Fantasia, was released on December 8, 2017. In addition to the new English translation, the game's netcode was overhauled to use a "rollback" system which mitigates input delay, similar to networking middleware GGPO. Steam integration was also introduced, which allows players to create lobbies and invite friends without the need to exchange IP addresses.

In further developer announcements , KOEI announced that the land battle system will be overhauled into a "Ranged-Shift Battle" system where players will choose from short, mid, and long-ranged combat positions with strengths and weaknesses. As well, 3 combat classes will be released to enhance land combat-oriented players. New "Imperial Quests" will allow players to run quests pertaining to a specific country.

Cotterill was born in Ampton in 1812 into an ecclesiastical family of committed Church Evangelicals. His father, Joseph Cotterill (1780 – 1858), was Rector of Blakeney, Norfolk, and a prebendary of Norwich Cathedral. His mother, Anne Boak, was a close friend of Hannah More. Educated at his father's old college, St John's College, Cambridge, he was both Senior Wrangler and headed the list of Classicists in 1835, on the strength of which he was elected as a Fellow of his college. Influenced by Charles Simeon, he was ordained in 1836 and went to India as Chaplain to the Madras Presidency the following year. Forced by malaria to return to England in 1846, he became inaugural Vice Principal and then the second Principal of Brighton College. In post less than six years, he reinvigorated the languishing infant school. In a whirlwind of energetic reform, he overhauled the curriculum by introducing the teaching of the sciences and oriental languages, restored discipline, launched a fund to build a chapel, built the first on-site boarding house and connected the school to the town's gas supply.

The stained glass in the windows of the chancel, and in eight of the clerestory windows, was made by Morris & Co., based on designs by Edward Burne-Jones, and dated between 1901 and 1928. Of the later windows, two were made by James Powell and Sons of Whitefriars, and a third by William Wilson of Edinburgh. The three-manual pipe organ was moved to the present church from Renshaw Street. It had been built in 1869 by William Hill and Son, and repaired between 1873 and 1883 by Gray and Davidson. It was rebuilt in 1910 by Rushworth and Dreaper, and overhauled by the same firm in 1937.

Trent Reznor overhauled the band line-up and image for the tour guitarist Robin Finck joined to play guitar while Danny Lohner joined on to play bass guitar. However, Chris Vrenna and James Woolley were brought back from the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. Image-wise, instead of the sloppy, low-budget style for previous tours, the band often dressed in black leather smothered in cornstarch, with band members often changing their hairstyles to radical hair styles for every concert. Robin Finck used makeup to hide his eyebrows, and Reznor would often don his 'fishnet gloves' (as they would come to be known) for the show. The band's showy yet intense tour style gave the band comparisons to David Bowie, whom Reznor was a big fan of. Later in the tour, Bowie and Reznor's protégé, Marilyn Manson, would often join the frontman on stage to sing their songs&mdashas evident in the Closure tour documentary.

Cars 7340, 7446, 7505, 7657, 7659, and 7691 were converted to R123 continuous welded rail holder cars for set DCR and overhauled under the R128 program.

After Noma's return to Vincent Astor he sold her to the department store magnate Rodman Wanamaker and by early 1920 she was being extensively overhauled and improved at South Brooklyn, again supervised by Tams, Lemoine & Crane. In 1923 Noma was chartered to William Beebe for his first expedition to the Galápagos Islands. In about 1927, Noma was sold to Nelson B. Warden and renamed Vega.

On 19 February 2004, Theodore Roosevelt entered a ten-month Docked Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) at NNSY in Portsmouth. Major systems overhauled included AC systems, Steam and CHT (sewage) systems, 1MC (announcing) systems, communication, navigation, and detection suites, weapons elevator overhauls, propeller replacement, hull cleaning and painting, and sea valve replacement. Theodore Roosevelt came out of dry-dock in August and completed the maintenance availability on 17 December 2004.

On her fourth war patrol, she sailed from Fremantle, Australia on 19 April, and patrolled north of the Palau Islands and off Wake Island, before reaching Honolulu on 25 May. From 30 May – 9 June, she patrolled north of Oahu. Overhauled at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, she guided bombers to Wake Island in December, and escaped from a severe depth-charging on 14 January 1943 during an attempted attack off Japan. Departing Pearl Harbor on 31 March, she fired torpedoes at targets off Truk from 12–14 April, and shelled Satawan Island on the 25th.

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Only four are operating today at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated.

It was reported in 2003 that SLC-3E would be overhauled to serve as a launch platform for the Atlas V. Renovations of SLC-3E began after a January 2004 ground breaking ceremony. Along with other work, the Mobile Service Tower roof was raised by approximately 30 ft to a height of 239 ft to accommodate an Atlas V 500 series vehicle with its larger payload fairing. In July 2004, Lockheed Martin announced the arrival of the fourth and final segment of the fixed launch platform (FLP). The segments had been transported from a fabrication facility in Oak Hill, FL, 3500 mi away. The largest segment weighed 90 tons and was "thought to be the biggest over-the-road shipment ever attempted cross-country." In February 2005, the activation team handed over the launch pad to the operational team, marking the end of major reconstruction. The first Atlas V launch from SLC-3E took place at 10:02 GMT on March 13, 2008.

Microsoft showcased other aspects of the new operating system, to be known as Windows 8, during subsequent presentations. Among these changes (which also included an overhauled interface optimized for use on touch-based devices built around Metro design language) was the introduction of Windows Runtime (WinRT). Software developed using this new architecture could be processor-independent (allowing compatibility with both x86 and ARM-based systems), would emphasize the use of touch input, would run within a sandboxed environment to provide additional security, and be distributed through Windows Store—a store similar to services such as the App Store and Google Play. WinRT was also optimized to provide a more "reliable" experience on ARM-based devices as such, backward compatibility for Win32 software otherwise compatible with older versions of Windows was intentionally excluded from Windows on ARM. Windows developers indicated that existing Windows applications were not specifically optimized for reliability and energy efficiency on the ARM architecture and that WinRT was sufficient for providing "full expressive power" for applications, "while avoiding the traps and pitfalls that can potentially reduce the overall experience for consumers." Consequentially, this lack of backward compatibility would also prevent existing malware from running on the operating system.

In mid-August 1987, WNEV overhauled its on-air image. The station dropped its "SE7EN" identity in favor of a new logo, which consisted of the number "7" made up of seven white dots inside of a blue circle. The logo was introduced as a part of the new station-wide campaign, "We're All on the Same Team", in which the seven dots represented the heads of team members. The dots also had dual usage, as lottery balls, in promotions for Lottery Live, the Massachusetts State Lottery drawings which were moving to WNEV late that summer. The campaign was primarily launched as a continued attempt to bolster the station's third-place news ratings, and to promote its news-sharing partnership with other TV and radio stations, The New England News Exchange.

Advertising sales for the stations paled in comparison to the competition, and managing both stations became a burden for the couple, so the Stewarts sold the station in 1972 to Fairchild Industries for $1.5 million. Fairchild subsequently dismissed the entire staff and overhauled both stations. On November 3, 1972, the AM station was relaunched as WYOO, picking up an oldies format (with rock and roll included). A few days later, WPBC-FM became WRAH and programmed an automated album oriented rock format. When the oldies format of WYOO started to slide in the ratings, more MOR music was added, but ratings slid even further. Fairchild contemplated selling the station. The general manager (Mike Sigelman) and program director (Rob Sherwood) (1974), both hired from established Top 40 station KDWB, felt a major change needed to be made.

In 2013, Governor Rick Scott signed the Timely Justice Act (HB 7101) which overhauled the processes for capital punishment. The United States Supreme Court struck down part of this law in January 2016 in Hurst v. Florida, declaring that a judge determining the aggravating facts to be used in considering a death sentence with only a non-binding recommendation from the jury based on a majority vote was insufficient and violated the Sixth Amendment guarantee of a jury trial. The Florida legislature passed a new statute to comply with the judgement in March 2016, changing the sentencing method to require a 10-juror supermajority for a sentence of death with a life sentence as the alternative. This new sentencing scheme was struck down by the Florida Supreme Court in a ruling 5–2 in October 2016, which held that a death sentence must be issued by a unanimous jury. The United States Supreme Court later left this decision undisturbed. Governor Scott in early 2017 signed a new law requiring a unanimous jury.

During 1954 she was overhauled at Norfolk Navy Yard, took refresher training at Narragansett Bay and another "Sunec" cruise on which she visited Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland. Two training cruises in the Caribbean in 1955 were succeeded by a third "Sunec" deployment on which she crossed the Arctic Circle for the second time.


William Wilberforce

"So enormous, so dreadful, so irremediable did the [slave] trade's wickedness appear that my own mind was completely made up for abolition. Let the consequences be what they would: I from this time determined that I would never rest until I had effected its abolition."

In the late 1700s, when William Wilberforce was a teenager, English traders raided the African coast on the Gulf of Guinea, captured between 35,000 and 50,000 Africans a year, shipped them across the Atlantic, and sold them into slavery. It was a profitable business that many powerful people had become dependent upon. One publicist for the West Indies trade wrote, "The impossibility of doing without slaves in the West Indies will always prevent this traffic being dropped. The necessity, the absolute necessity, then, of carrying it on, must, since there is no other, be its excuse."

By the late 1700s, the economics of slavery were so entrenched that only a handful of people thought anything could be done about it. That handful included William Wilberforce.

Taking on a purpose

This would have surprised those who knew Wilberforce as a young man. He grew up surrounded by wealth. He was a native of Hull and educated at St. John's College at Cambridge. But he wasn't a serious student. He later reflected, "As much pains were taken to make me idle as were ever taken to make me studious." A neighbor at Cambridge added, "When he [Wilberforce] returned late in the evening to his rooms, he would summon me to join him&hellip. He was so winning and amusing that I often sat up half the night with him, much to the detriment of my attendance at lectures the next day."

Timeline

George Whitefield converted

John & Charles Wesley's evangelical conversions

First production of Handel's Messiah

David Livingstone sails for Africa

Yet Wilberforce had political ambitions and, with his connections, managed to win election to Parliament in 1780, where he formed a lasting friendship with William Pitt, the future prime minister. But he later admitted, "The first years in Parliament I did nothing&mdashnothing to any purpose. My own distinction was my darling object."

But he began to reflect deeply on his life, which led to a period of intense sorrow. "I am sure that no human creature could suffer more than I did for some months," he later wrote. His unnatural gloom lifted on Easter 1786, "amidst the general chorus with which all nature seems on such a morning to be swelling the song of praise and thanksgiving." He had experienced a spiritual rebirth.

He abstained from alcohol and practiced rigorous self-examination as befit, he believed, a "serious" Christian. He abhorred the socializing that went along with politicking. He worried about "the temptations at the table," the endless dinner parties, which he thought were full of vain and useless conversation: "[They] disqualify me for every useful purpose in life, waste my time, impair my health, fill my mind with thoughts of resistance before and self-condemnation afterwards."

He began to see his life's purpose: "My walk is a public one," he wrote in his diary. "My business is in the world, and I must mix in the assemblies of men or quit the post which Providence seems to have assigned me."

In particular, two causes caught his attention. First, under the influence of Thomas Clarkson, he became absorbed with the issue of slavery. Later he wrote, "So enormous, so dreadful, so irremediable did the trade's wickedness appear that my own mind was completely made up for abolition. Let the consequences be what they would: I from this time determined that I would never rest until I had effected its abolition."

Wilberforce was initially optimistic, even naively so. He expressed "no doubt" about his chances of quick success. As early as 1789, he and Clarkson managed to have 12 resolutions against the slave trade introduced&mdashonly to be outmaneuvered on fine legal points. The pathway to abolition was blocked by vested interests, parliamentary filibustering, entrenched bigotry, international politics, slave unrest, personal sickness, and political fear. Other bills introduced by Wilberforce were defeated in 1791, 1792, 1793, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1804, and 1805.

When it became clear that Wilberforce was not going to let the issue die, pro-slavery forces targeted him. He was vilified opponents spoke of "the damnable doctrine of Wilberforce and his hypocritical allies." The opposition became so fierce, one friend feared that one day he would read about Wilberforce's being "carbonated [broiled] by Indian planters, barbecued by African merchants, and eaten by Guinea captains."

Prime minister of philanthropy

Slavery was only one cause that excited Wilberforce's passions. His second great calling was for the "reformation of manners," that is, morals. In early 1787, he conceived of a society that would work, as a royal proclamation put it, "for the encouragement of piety and virtue and for the preventing of vice, profaneness, and immorality." It eventually become known as the Society for the Suppression of Vice.

In fact, Wilberforce&mdashdubbed "the prime minister of a cabinet of philanthropists"&mdashwas at one time active in support of 69 philanthropic causes. He gave away one-quarter of his annual income to the poor. He fought on behalf of chimney sweeps, single mothers, Sunday schools, orphans, and juvenile delinquents. He helped found parachurch groups like the Society for Bettering the Cause of the Poor, the Church Missionary Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the Antislavery Society.

In 1797, he settled at Clapham, where he became a prominent member of the "Clapham Sect," a group of devout Christians of influence in government and business. That same year he wrote Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians&mdasha scathing critique of comfortable Christianity that became a bestseller.

All this in spite of the fact that poor health plagued him his entire life, sometimes keeping him bedridden for weeks. During one such time in his late twenties, he wrote, "[I] am still a close prisoner, wholly unequal even to such a little business as I am now engaged in: add to which my eyes are so bad that I can scarce see how to direct my pen."

He survived this and other bouts of debilitating illness with the help of opium, a new drug at the time, the affects of which were still unknown. Wilberforce soon became addicted, though opium's hallucinatory powers terrified him, and the depressions it caused virtually crippled him at times.

When healthy, however, he was a persistent and effective politician, partly due to his natural charm and partly to his eloquence. His antislavery efforts finally bore fruit in 1807: Parliament abolished the slave trade in the British Empire. He then worked to ensure the slave trade laws were enforced and, finally, that slavery in the British Empire was abolished. Wilberforce's health prevented him from leading the last charge, though he heard three days before he died that the final passage of the emancipation bill was ensured in committee.


Zeal AM-131 - History

Nine days later, Zeal began the first leg of a voyage back to the United States. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, she arrived in Portland, Oregon, on 4 December. She was overhauled there at the Albina Shipards during December and the first two months of 1945. She completed repairs and departed Portland on 4 March, bound for refresher and minesweeping training along the coast of California. That employment occupied her for about a month.

In 2014, Muni sent 1056, the first from the original batch of sixteen to be overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. The entire first batch of sixteen is scheduled to be rebuilt at Brookville the next cars to be sent were 1051, 1060, and 1059 in that order followed (in indeterminate order) by 1055, 1062, and 1063. The first streetcar to re-enter service, 1051, was re-dedicated to Harvey Milk in March 2017, and was followed back into service by 1056.

All of these cars were purchased by Twin Cities Rapid Transit in 1946. They were sold to Newark in 1953 and ran on the Newark City Subway until replacement by modern light rail vehicles in 2001. The San Francisco Municipal Railway acquired these cars in 2004 and had the cars overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. Some of the cars were put in service in early 2007, but were taken out of service for wiring problems. These problems were eventually repaired. All these cars are single-end cars.

Overhauled and her crew restored to health, Midnight arrived Port Royal, South Carolina, 16 October for service in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For almost 2 years she continued this duty, a strong link in the chain which the Union Navy had forged and was drawing ever tighter around the Confederacy. On 3 February 1864 she captured British schooner Defy off Doboy Light, Georgia, sailing from Nassau to Beaufort, North Carolina with a cargo of salt for the South. Midnight was ordered to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 August for repairs.

The English localization of Golden Fantasia Cross, titled Umineko: Golden Fantasia, was released on December 8, 2017. In addition to the new English translation, the game's netcode was overhauled to use a "rollback" system which mitigates input delay, similar to networking middleware GGPO. Steam integration was also introduced, which allows players to create lobbies and invite friends without the need to exchange IP addresses.

In further developer announcements , KOEI announced that the land battle system will be overhauled into a "Ranged-Shift Battle" system where players will choose from short, mid, and long-ranged combat positions with strengths and weaknesses. As well, 3 combat classes will be released to enhance land combat-oriented players. New "Imperial Quests" will allow players to run quests pertaining to a specific country.

Cotterill was born in Ampton in 1812 into an ecclesiastical family of committed Church Evangelicals. His father, Joseph Cotterill (1780 – 1858), was Rector of Blakeney, Norfolk, and a prebendary of Norwich Cathedral. His mother, Anne Boak, was a close friend of Hannah More. Educated at his father's old college, St John's College, Cambridge, he was both Senior Wrangler and headed the list of Classicists in 1835, on the strength of which he was elected as a Fellow of his college. Influenced by Charles Simeon, he was ordained in 1836 and went to India as Chaplain to the Madras Presidency the following year. Forced by malaria to return to England in 1846, he became inaugural Vice Principal and then the second Principal of Brighton College. In post less than six years, he reinvigorated the languishing infant school. In a whirlwind of energetic reform, he overhauled the curriculum by introducing the teaching of the sciences and oriental languages, restored discipline, launched a fund to build a chapel, built the first on-site boarding house and connected the school to the town's gas supply.

The stained glass in the windows of the chancel, and in eight of the clerestory windows, was made by Morris & Co., based on designs by Edward Burne-Jones, and dated between 1901 and 1928. Of the later windows, two were made by James Powell and Sons of Whitefriars, and a third by William Wilson of Edinburgh. The three-manual pipe organ was moved to the present church from Renshaw Street. It had been built in 1869 by William Hill and Son, and repaired between 1873 and 1883 by Gray and Davidson. It was rebuilt in 1910 by Rushworth and Dreaper, and overhauled by the same firm in 1937.

Trent Reznor overhauled the band line-up and image for the tour guitarist Robin Finck joined to play guitar while Danny Lohner joined on to play bass guitar. However, Chris Vrenna and James Woolley were brought back from the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. Image-wise, instead of the sloppy, low-budget style for previous tours, the band often dressed in black leather smothered in cornstarch, with band members often changing their hairstyles to radical hair styles for every concert. Robin Finck used makeup to hide his eyebrows, and Reznor would often don his 'fishnet gloves' (as they would come to be known) for the show. The band's showy yet intense tour style gave the band comparisons to David Bowie, whom Reznor was a big fan of. Later in the tour, Bowie and Reznor's protégé, Marilyn Manson, would often join the frontman on stage to sing their songs&mdashas evident in the Closure tour documentary.

Cars 7340, 7446, 7505, 7657, 7659, and 7691 were converted to R123 continuous welded rail holder cars for set DCR and overhauled under the R128 program.

After Noma's return to Vincent Astor he sold her to the department store magnate Rodman Wanamaker and by early 1920 she was being extensively overhauled and improved at South Brooklyn, again supervised by Tams, Lemoine & Crane. In 1923 Noma was chartered to William Beebe for his first expedition to the Galápagos Islands. In about 1927, Noma was sold to Nelson B. Warden and renamed Vega.

On 19 February 2004, Theodore Roosevelt entered a ten-month Docked Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) at NNSY in Portsmouth. Major systems overhauled included AC systems, Steam and CHT (sewage) systems, 1MC (announcing) systems, communication, navigation, and detection suites, weapons elevator overhauls, propeller replacement, hull cleaning and painting, and sea valve replacement. Theodore Roosevelt came out of dry-dock in August and completed the maintenance availability on 17 December 2004.

On her fourth war patrol, she sailed from Fremantle, Australia on 19 April, and patrolled north of the Palau Islands and off Wake Island, before reaching Honolulu on 25 May. From 30 May – 9 June, she patrolled north of Oahu. Overhauled at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, she guided bombers to Wake Island in December, and escaped from a severe depth-charging on 14 January 1943 during an attempted attack off Japan. Departing Pearl Harbor on 31 March, she fired torpedoes at targets off Truk from 12–14 April, and shelled Satawan Island on the 25th.

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Only four are operating today at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated.

It was reported in 2003 that SLC-3E would be overhauled to serve as a launch platform for the Atlas V. Renovations of SLC-3E began after a January 2004 ground breaking ceremony. Along with other work, the Mobile Service Tower roof was raised by approximately 30 ft to a height of 239 ft to accommodate an Atlas V 500 series vehicle with its larger payload fairing. In July 2004, Lockheed Martin announced the arrival of the fourth and final segment of the fixed launch platform (FLP). The segments had been transported from a fabrication facility in Oak Hill, FL, 3500 mi away. The largest segment weighed 90 tons and was "thought to be the biggest over-the-road shipment ever attempted cross-country." In February 2005, the activation team handed over the launch pad to the operational team, marking the end of major reconstruction. The first Atlas V launch from SLC-3E took place at 10:02 GMT on March 13, 2008.

Microsoft showcased other aspects of the new operating system, to be known as Windows 8, during subsequent presentations. Among these changes (which also included an overhauled interface optimized for use on touch-based devices built around Metro design language) was the introduction of Windows Runtime (WinRT). Software developed using this new architecture could be processor-independent (allowing compatibility with both x86 and ARM-based systems), would emphasize the use of touch input, would run within a sandboxed environment to provide additional security, and be distributed through Windows Store—a store similar to services such as the App Store and Google Play. WinRT was also optimized to provide a more "reliable" experience on ARM-based devices as such, backward compatibility for Win32 software otherwise compatible with older versions of Windows was intentionally excluded from Windows on ARM. Windows developers indicated that existing Windows applications were not specifically optimized for reliability and energy efficiency on the ARM architecture and that WinRT was sufficient for providing "full expressive power" for applications, "while avoiding the traps and pitfalls that can potentially reduce the overall experience for consumers." Consequentially, this lack of backward compatibility would also prevent existing malware from running on the operating system.

In mid-August 1987, WNEV overhauled its on-air image. The station dropped its "SE7EN" identity in favor of a new logo, which consisted of the number "7" made up of seven white dots inside of a blue circle. The logo was introduced as a part of the new station-wide campaign, "We're All on the Same Team", in which the seven dots represented the heads of team members. The dots also had dual usage, as lottery balls, in promotions for Lottery Live, the Massachusetts State Lottery drawings which were moving to WNEV late that summer. The campaign was primarily launched as a continued attempt to bolster the station's third-place news ratings, and to promote its news-sharing partnership with other TV and radio stations, The New England News Exchange.

Advertising sales for the stations paled in comparison to the competition, and managing both stations became a burden for the couple, so the Stewarts sold the station in 1972 to Fairchild Industries for $1.5 million. Fairchild subsequently dismissed the entire staff and overhauled both stations. On November 3, 1972, the AM station was relaunched as WYOO, picking up an oldies format (with rock and roll included). A few days later, WPBC-FM became WRAH and programmed an automated album oriented rock format. When the oldies format of WYOO started to slide in the ratings, more MOR music was added, but ratings slid even further. Fairchild contemplated selling the station. The general manager (Mike Sigelman) and program director (Rob Sherwood) (1974), both hired from established Top 40 station KDWB, felt a major change needed to be made.

In 2013, Governor Rick Scott signed the Timely Justice Act (HB 7101) which overhauled the processes for capital punishment. The United States Supreme Court struck down part of this law in January 2016 in Hurst v. Florida, declaring that a judge determining the aggravating facts to be used in considering a death sentence with only a non-binding recommendation from the jury based on a majority vote was insufficient and violated the Sixth Amendment guarantee of a jury trial. The Florida legislature passed a new statute to comply with the judgement in March 2016, changing the sentencing method to require a 10-juror supermajority for a sentence of death with a life sentence as the alternative. This new sentencing scheme was struck down by the Florida Supreme Court in a ruling 5–2 in October 2016, which held that a death sentence must be issued by a unanimous jury. The United States Supreme Court later left this decision undisturbed. Governor Scott in early 2017 signed a new law requiring a unanimous jury.

During 1954 she was overhauled at Norfolk Navy Yard, took refresher training at Narragansett Bay and another "Sunec" cruise on which she visited Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland. Two training cruises in the Caribbean in 1955 were succeeded by a third "Sunec" deployment on which she crossed the Arctic Circle for the second time.


Watch the video: Uss Zeal Am-131 (August 2022).