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8 Ancient Empires You’ve Never Heard Of

8 Ancient Empires You’ve Never Heard Of


The most populous ancient empires

We don't know anything about the political organization and little about population of the Mayas. These huge numbers of 11 - 20 million are clearly nonsense considering the tiny area of pre-columbian culture:

These cultures were too small to have large populations. Their technology also was too primitive to allow high population density (they didn't have any minimally efficient method of transportation, nor they had animal power for farming).

Guaporense

What? Mayas and Aztecs at the same technological/social level as the ancient Europeans? Mayas in the same technological/social level of the Roman Empire? Nonsense. The difference in technology and social complexity between the modern USA and the Roman Empire was smaller than that between the Roman Empire and the Mayas.

The Mayas and Aztecs were more like comparable to the Anatolians of 5,000 BCE, though the Anatolians had metal working technology.

Guaporense

Nobody ever said that China reached over 60-70 million before the Tang/Song periods, in the middle ages.

Population densities declined from 200 BCE onwards in mespotamia and iranian plateau. They didn't increase. The Parthian/Sassanid empires never had over 10 million inhabitants. Their populations probably hovered around 4-8 million.

The number of soldiers that they could mobilize for war is rather small. The Roman Republic during the Second Punic war mobilized many hundreds of thousands of soldiers, out of a population of 4-5 million. Athens could mobilize 40,000 men in the Peloponnesian war for the Syracusan expedition, out of a population of 300,000. Tens of thousands of soldiers don't imply that populations were higher than 8 million.

The Roman border forces to hold the Parthians totaled 7 legions, or 80,000 men. Smaller forces than the Romans used in their wars with Macedon and the Seleucids in the 2nd century BCE. These forces were much smaller than what they could mobilize. So the fact that the Parthians and Sassanians had field armies about the same size speaks nothing about their relative population to the Roman Empire. If you take that analogy far enough why not conclude that Gaul had 400 million inhabitants, since according to Caesar, in Alesia the Gauls fielded an army 6 times larger than the Roman army.

Clement

Guaporense

The Persian Empire had a much larger territory than modern Iran, probably the modern Iranian territory had about 10% of the population of the Persian Empire (3-4 million out of the 35 million) in 340 BCE. Let me demonstrate.

All the major cities of the Persian Empire were outside the Iranian plateau, as the fact that all major Persian field armies that engaged Alexander did so before Alexander conquered Mesopotamia. By the time Alexander reached the Iranian plateau the Persian Empire was unable to mobilize significant armies, indicating that the bulk of Persian manpower was in the west of the Iranian plateau.

Let analyse the geography of the Persian Empire:

using the high end estimates of the territories west of the Iranian plateau we get:

Egypt: 7 million
Cyrenaica: 1 million
Palestine: 2-3 million
Syria: 3-4 million
Anatolia: 10 million (in the Roman period Anatolia had about 12-15 million people, divided into 6-7 roman provinces)
Mesopotamia: 6 million

Total in the western part of the Persian empire yields 30 million people. Without counting the areas of modern Iran we can reach 30 million.

The Iranian Plateau had only a minority of the population of the Persian Empire. As it was poorly populated and developed. Mesopotamia, the Levant, Egypt and Asia Minor were the core areas of the Persian Empire in demographic terms. The Persian Empire controlled most of the civilized areas of the world in 500 BCE and this empire was build upon Assyrian foundations:

These foundations were the mesopotamian, egyptian, hittite, phoenician, greek and lydian territories. The Persian Empire was essentially a barbarian kingdom in that a population of a semi-civilized region (iran) conquered the civilized regions of anatolia, levant, egypt and mesopotamia.

The Sassanid and Parthian empires had a much, much smaller population than the Persian titan. Their territory was restricted to the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia, when the general population density of western asia was declining from the classical peak of 500 BCE - 200 BCE.

The most populated areas of the former Persian Empire were conquered by Rome, which left the poorly populated, poor areas that couldn't pay taxes to the locals (parthians, sassanians).

Mesopotamia had about 3-4 million (from their high of 6 million centuries earlier), while the eastern portions of the empire were poorly populated. A total population around 6-8 million is a realistic estimate.

The historical population of Iran only surpassed 10 million in the 20th century:

But that's fully consistent with a population of 35 million for the Persian Empire in 340 BCE. Iran today has a population of 74 million, while the areas of the former Persian Empire have currently a population of ca500 million (Turkey, 74 million, Egypt, 80 million, Libya 6 million, the Levant, 40 million, Iraq, 34 million, Iran 74 million, Pakistan, 170 million, Afghanistam, 29 million, turkmenistan, 6 million, caucasians, 10 million, total 523 million). 100 years ago, when Iran had 9 million people, the territories of the former Persian Empire had 60 million inhabitants.

In 340 BCE Iran probably had 3-4 million inhabitants. But the Achaemenid Persian Empire was much, much more than Iran.

Edgewaters

You don't know anything about their political structure. Academics do. The Mayan script has been broken, and while they do not have a crystal clear picture, they do know quite a bit more than presumed by laymen unfamiliar with the topic. Linda Schele established a broad view of the Mayan hierarchy through translations of the script and other work.

Those numbers are conservative estimates, widely accepted in the scholarly community. Of course there are lower estimates, and much higher ones too, but those are the conventional figures.

Clearly you're not too familiar with the extraordinary population density of areas like the Valley of Mexico (which is still massively populated, because the geography favours that).

Total land area is practically irrelevant in determining how much population can be supported. Only a tiny fraction of land is any good for supporting populations. Populations cluster in these islands of arable land. Mexico just so happens to be a virtual archipelago.

Populations are calculated from the housing capacity of major urban centres, of which there are many, as your own map itself depicts. These are larger than most European centres at the time of contact. To arrive at the lower estimates, historians presume higher levels of urbanization. To arrive at the higher estimates, historians assume a more primitive culture with less urbanization. Ironically enough, to support a lower population you must endorse a higher level of sophistication and urbanization.

No, they were probably more comparable to the ancient Egyptians or Mesopotamians. They were not on the level of the Romans, certainly.

There is nothing in Anatolia in 5000 BC that even remotely resembles this:

There are dozens upon dozens of large urban centres. Anatolia in 5000 BC has Catal Hayuk, one (1) mud-walled village which vaguely resembles a primitive version of a pueblo (though of nowhere near the sophistication of something such as Pueblo Bonito). Pueblos are common north of the civilization centers in Mexico, and the inhabitants were regarded as primitive barbarians by the Mesoamericans. The Anatolians in 5000 BC had no written language, little social stratification, only the most primitive agriculture (it's dubious if it can even be called that), and their metallurgy at that point is only just learning to work copper.

Also, metallurgy was not at all unknown in the civilizations of the New World. They didn't have iron. But they certainly had metallurgy, and produced all sorts of artifacts in gold and other metals, and had been doing so for quite some time. They used copper for some tools and in key areas, bronze: the use of bronze by the Tarascans is well-documented, as it is for the Inca. Here, for instance, is a bronze war-axe of the Inca:

How on Earth would you produce something like this without metallurgy? Star Trek replicators?

It is obvious to me that you aren't that interested in Mesoamerican and Andean cultures of the precolumbian period there is nothing wrong with that. But your knowledge is plainly cursory, more pop culture than anything, because it's not a subject you've taken much time to explore, no doubt due to lack of interest. Nothing wrong with that, but you can't pretend to be able to offer an informed assessment. Comparing a tiny pueblo-type village with things like Teotihuacan, Tikal, Cuzco, Palenque etc etc and calling them the same makes this quite plain.

Guaporense

Okay. The Mayans and Aztecs were more advanced than the Anatolians from 5,000 BCE. Still that doesn't mean that their populations reached ca20 million.

Egypt in 3,000 BCE had a population of 1 million according to Ian Morris. I guess the same level for the mesoamericans. The largest cities in mesoamerican history had up to 100,000 inhabitants, Teotihuacan and Tenochtitlan, but that was thanks to an absurd level of centralization. The biggest Mayan city had 40-50 thousand inhabitants, about the same size as the biggest egyptian or mesopotamian city of ca 3,000 BCE. Catalhoyuk had less than 1/10 of the size of the largest mesoamerican cities.

Anyway, Tenochtitlan also wasn't exactly a city in the sense that many inhabitants of Tenochtitlan were farmers, only the central areas of the city were genuinely urban:

Most of the city consisted of chinampas (compact farming plots).

And the mesoamericans didn't have metal working, the incas had.

Large settlements aren't necessarily an indicator of social development. In terms of technology the pre-columbian cultures had almost nothing. They didn't have any type of machines, nor they used animal power in agriculture. They didn't use wind, water and animal power, while ancient eurasian societies all used these forms of power.

Their monumental structures were the most primitive type possible: pyramidal structures.

Overall if one should call the mesoamericans a civilization, they set the lower bar for what consists in a civilization.

The myth of advanced mesoamerican civilization makes me a bit nervous, that's why I got a bit over the top before. But the gauls for instance were more advanced than the mesoamericans in technology. It is impossible that any mesoamerican polity achieved populations comparable to the major eurasian empires. The Aztec empire never reached 10 million inhabitants, considering the size of their territory and the technology they had, populations were probably closer to 1 million than 10 million, like Egypt in 3,000 BCE.

Edgewaters

Then you must assume they were more advanced than commonly believed, and had a high level of urbanization. Remember the Mayans were living way, way beyond their means and collapsed because of it. Their population at its peak is thought to be much higher than what the land can actually support. From what we know they had a very low level of urbanization, as is typical for less advanced cultures.

The defensive earthworks surrounding the city encompass an area of 120 square miles! Nevertheless, the population was likely only about 90 000.

As you can see, Tikal is not terribly concentrated at all.

Cities like Teotihuacan were far more dense. The entire population lived in large, single-story apartment buildings - there were no private dwellings at all. In such cities populations were much, much larger. It had a population of at least 150 000, with a high range of 250 000 and a common estimate around 200 000. It was, in fact, one of the largest cities in the world in its time (2nd and 3rd century AD). Not the largest but one of the largest.

As for the Aztec capitol at Tenochtitlan:

Each calpulli had its own tiyanquiztli (marketplace), but there was also a main marketplace in Tlatelolco – Tenochtitlan's sister city. Cortés estimated it was twice the size of the city of [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seville"]Seville[/ame] with about 60,000 people trading daily. Bernardino de Sahagún provides a more conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days . Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. At this time it is believed that the city was one of the largest in the world compared to Europe, only [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"]Paris[/ame], [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice"]Venice[/ame] and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople"]Constantinople[/ame] were larger. In a letter to the Spanish king, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan was as large as [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seville"]Seville[/ame] or Córdoba.[6] The most common estimates put the population at over 200,000 people. One of the few comprehensive academic surveys of Mesoamerican city and town sizes arrived at a population of 212,500 living on 13.5 km2 (5.2 sq mi),[7]


[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teotihuacan"]Teotihuacan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

The Inca had bronze, which only one Mesoamerican group had developed (the Tarascans) but they all had metallurgy. How do you think they made things like this?:


8 Oldest Empires in the World

While the Roman Empire was one the longest empires (lasted about 1,500 years) and is probably the most famous, in the span of human history, it is fairly modern. The earliest empires precede the Roman Empire by over 2,000 years. These early empires were formed by the early civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas. As these civilizations grew, so did their sphere of power and their desire to conquer near and distant lands. Many of these first empires ruled over the same lands, eventually replacing one another as they fell.

8. Achaemenid Empire

Year Established and Ended: c.550 BCE – 330 BCE
Duration: 220 years
Founding Country: Ancient Near East (modern-day Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria, and Kuwait)
Capital City: Several, but Babylon was the main capital

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Achaemenid Empire was the first Persian Empires and one of the largest empires ever in history. The empire was founded around 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great. Under his rule the empire expanded from the Ancient Near East to most of Southwest Asia, much of Central Asia, and the Caucasus, making it a larger empire than any previous empire.

In addition to its military prowess, the Achaemenid Empire is notable for its successful model of a centralized, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems as well as a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services. The decline of the empire is attributed to heavy tax burdens and the failure to create a national identity among its subjects from different nations.

7. Carthaginian Empire

Year Established and Ended: 650 BCE – 146 BCE
Duration: 504 years
Founding Country: North Africa
Capital City: Carthage

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Phoenician city-state of Carthage was founded in 814 BCE. It gained its independence in 650 BCE and established its control over the other Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean – this was the start of the Carthaginian Empire. At its peak, the empire’s capital city of Carthage served as a major trading hub and was called the “shining city”, which ruled over 300 other cities.

Throughout most of the empire’s history, it was at war with the Greeks in Sicily as well as the Roman Republic. These hostilities led to a series of armed conflicts known as the Greek-Punic Wars (c.600 BCE – 265 BCE) and the Punic Wars (264 BCE – 146 BCE). After the third and final Punic War sometime in 146 BCE, Carthage fell to the Roman Republic.

6. Kushite Empire (Nubian Dynasty)

Year Established and Ended: 760 BCE – 656 BCE
Duration: 94 years
Founding Country: Ancient Egypt ruled by the Nubians from the Kingdom of Kush (modern-day northern Sudan and southern Egypt)
Capital City: Napata

photo source: Wikipedia

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Kushite Empire, also known as the 25 th Dynasty of Egypt and the Nubian Dynasty, occurred when the Nubians successfully invaded Ancient Egypt. The first king of the Kushite Empire was Piye, whose father Kashta had started the invasion of Upper Egypt. Their war brought together Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, and Kush, forming the largest Egyptian empire since the New Kingdom (c.1550 BCE – c.1077 BCE).

Under Piye, the construction of pyramids was revived and he built the oldest pyramid at the royal burial site of El-Kurru and also expanded the Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkal. The rulers after Piye also took interest in restoring Egyptian monuments and building some of their own. They also attempted to regain parts of Egypt from the Assyrians, but were unsuccessful.

5. Egyptian Empire (New Kingdom of Egypt)

Year Established and Ended: c.1550 BCE – c.1077 BCE
Duration: 473 years
Founding Country: Ancient Egypt
Capital City: Several cities throughout duration: Thebes, Akhetaten, Thebes again, Pi-Ramesses, and Memphis

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Although the ancient Egyptians had first established its kingdom around 2686 BCE, the New Kingdom is the only era known as the Egyptian Empire. This period of ancient Egyptian history spans over the 18 th , 19 th , and 20 th Dynasties of Egypt, which lasted from around 1550 BCE until 1077 BCE. During the Egyptian Empire, Egypt was at the height of its power and prosperity.

Some of Egypt’s most well-known Pharaohs ruled during this time including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramesses II (“the Great”). Also under the Egyptian Empire, art and architecture flourished. The Valley of the Kings was built around this time – it is Egypt’s largest funerary complex containing the tombs of several Pharaohs and powerful nobles.

4. Hittite Empire

Year Established and Ended: c.1600 BCE – 1178 BCE
Duration: 422 years
Founding Country: north-central Anatolia (parts of modern-day Turkey)
Capital City: Hattusa

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Hittite Empire was established sometime around 1600 BCE and at its peak, encompassed most of Anatolia as well as parts of northern Levant (modern-day Syria) and Upper Mesopotamia (northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey). Due to its geographic location, the Hittite Empire often came into fought with the Egyptian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Empire, and the Kingdom of Mitanni for control of the area.

Eventually, the Assyrians dominated the area and annexed most of the Hittite Empire’s lands. With so much competition from surrounding empires, the Hittite Empire had several weak periods with insignificant rulers and reduced areas of control. Not much about these weaker periods is known because the Hittites kept less precise records during these times.

3. Babylonian Empire (First Babylonian Dynasty)

Year Established and Ended: c.1894 BCE – c.1595 BCE
Duration: 300 years
Founding Country: central-southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq)
Capital City: Babylon

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The First Babylonian Dynasty lasted from about 1894 BCE – 1595 BCE. This first era in the Babylonian Empire emerged when an Amorite (a Northwest Semitic-speaking people from the northern Levant – the historical region of Syria) king established a small kingdom that included Babylon, which was a minor town at the time. Eventually, Babylon grew in size and power and reached its peak under the reign of Hammurabi (c. 1728—1686 BCE).

After Hammurabi’s death, the Babylonian Empire began to rapidly decline and eventually reverted back into a small kingdom. Sometime around the end of the First Babylonian Dynasty, the capital city of Babylon was sacked by the Hittites under king Mursili I.

2. Assyrian Empire

Year Established and Ended: c.2025 BCE – c.605 BCE
Duration: 1,420 years
Founding Country: Assyria (parts of modern-day Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Iran)
Capital City: several throughout different periods – first capital city was Aššur

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Assyrian Empire is typically divided into four eras: the Early Assyrian Period, the Old Assyrian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period. Although the first capital city of Aššur was first established around 2600 BCE, during the Early Period, Assyrians were under the rule of the Akkadian Empire.

While it was a kingdom during this time, the Assyrian Empire did not emerge until after the fall of the Akkadian Empire. During the height of the Assyrian Empire, it ruled over what the ancient Mesopotamian religion called the “Four Corners of the World”: as far north as the Caucasus Mountains, as far east as the Zargos Mountains, as far west as Cyrpus in the Mediterranean Sea, and as far south as the Arabian desert.

1. Akkadian Empire

Year Established and Ended: c.2334 BCE – c.2154 BCE
Duration: 180 years
Founding Country: Ancient Mesopotamia – around modern-day Iraq
Capital City: Akkad

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Akkadian Empire was the first empire of ancient Mesopotamia, which makes it the oldest empire in the world. Under the empire, Akkadians and Sumerians were united and many people were bilingual, speaking both the Akkadian and Sumerian language. There were eight kings over the duration of the Akkadian Empire: Sargon, Rimush, Manishtushu, Naram-Sin, Shar-Kali-Sharri, Interregnum, Dudu, and Shu-turul.

Although scholars have documented over 7,000 texts detailing the Akkadian Empire, they have not yet located the capital city of Akkad. Most of the archaeological research related to the Akkadian Empire comes from an area in modern northeastern Syria, which became part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad.


Ancient Empires VS Modern Times

It is compelling to see how they and other ancient peoples built up great and worthy empires, founded upon the solid bedrock of religion and kingship. There is something about those great polities that we in the modern world lack.
First of all, they truly revered their rulers. Their time was much more primitive and as such much more fertile for heroes and heroic deeds. The most heroic rulers would have the greatest basis on which to legitimise their reign, helped, as they were, by propaganda. Consider this benediction written for the mighty king Hattusili I:
"His frame is new, his breast is new, his penis is new, his head is of tin, his teeth are those of a lion, his eyes are (those) of an eagle, and he sees like an eagle."

To most of his subjects, who would never have seen him but would have heard of his great conquests and worthy deeds, he would truly have been almost god-like. Upon their deaths, the Hittite rulers would literally become gods. It would not surprise me if the entire Indo-European pantheon of gods was based on heroic, primordial individuals whose impact on their communities was so profound that they were deemed worthy of deification. Unable to come to terms with the death of such great figures, ancient communities made them into gods in order to convince themselves that the mighty men that had walked among them were enjoying a new life outside this world, and were surely watching over them. Whether this was true or not is not the important thing, but that such figures were deemed worthy of reverence is. They were exceptional beings, something approaching Nietzsche's Overman or Joseph Conrad's Mr. Kurtz. They were great and terrifying, and their very countenance demanded prostration and worship.

Secondly of all, they were vibrant societies that encouraged heroism. They endured almost constant warfare. They were always expanding. A life of hardship and danger and struggle was encouraged and rewarded. Unlike our neutered, pacifistic times, comfort was a luxury that could be ill-afforded. The Hittites in particular had a sprawling landmass with villages that were often isolated by mountains and rocky passes and were therefore very exposed. The state could not guarantee constant security like in our times. If the security apparatuses of the Western world shut down tomorrow, who knows how many terrorist attacks would happen? Would the people of the West remain docile and somnolent in the face of the Islamic threat? Would they not seize whatever they can find to defend themselves? As Julius Evola said, in these dark times, men will fight not out of a higher, heroic principles, but to preserve this skin. When people are afraid, afraid for their lives, afraid for their comfortable existence, then they will know how to fight.

Third, their societies had clear class boundaries, with an aristocracy, a priesthood, merchants and a lower-class. None of that egalitarian nonsense so common in our day. Those higher up were rightfully venerated and respected. The King would personally hear the most serious cases, and, in his wisdom, make the ultimate judgement. One, heroic being would sit in judgement over his people, accorded the respect of which he was worthy.
There are many things that could be learnt from these great ancient empires. Let us aim to imitate, even surpass, their glorious achievements.


5 greatest empires in ancient, medieval period, modern times

Aside from size of the empire, it must include the military strength, wealth of an nation, economy, civilization, culture, inventions, trading ect are all things that makes an empire great and powerful. The largest empire doesn't make them the strongest.


Ancient (no order in particular, they were all great in their own ways)

Greek empire territories : Most of Middle east, western south Asia, Egypt, Southern central Asia.

With Alexander it was the most powerful empire as it conquered most of the world known civilization apart from China and Americas. It easily defeated millions of Persians with an few hundred Greeks but Alexander died soon and so the empire started to crumble without him.

Han dynasty territories : Southern China, North Korea, Manchuria, North Vietnam, East Turkistan Tocharian kingdoms in Tarim Basin, and also extended their influences in Central Asia.

It was the richest and wealthiest nation in the world, and one of world most powerful nation, it was also an period where China became the nation with most inventions. It defeated the Xiongnu's for control of Tarim Basin where they ruled the Tocharian kingdoms for 160 years, and China also became an nation with 56 etnic groups. However they also submitted to the Xiongnu into many humiliating tributes and was raided many times.

Roman empire territories : West Europe, southern Europe, North Africa, western middle east, Caucasus.

The empire was the strongest in Europe during it's time and lasted the longest of all empires and also one of most wealthiest nation and the influence of Latin in Europe is evident till this day. However the empire not only crumbled in the end and the Roman identity became extinct, only some Italians are real descendants of Romans.

Hunnic empire territories : conquered most of East Europe, and west Europe Germany, Austria.

Atilla the Hun conquered most of Europe by himself and the Romans also feared the Huns military power. However they were barbarian nomadic tribes with no civilization and it's only strong during Attila the Hun.

Mauryan empire territories : Almost all of South Asia, and east Afghanistan

It was the strongest empire in South Asia, it was an rich and powerful nation but it
s territories only to South Asia.


Mongol Empire territories: East Europe, Central Asia, all of Caucasus, parts of middle east, parts of South Asia (Pakistan, Kashmir), East Asia, Turkey.

It is the world largest continuous empire and second largest empire in history. It also opened the door from west to east, however despite all it's military achievements it was an barbarian empire.

Tang dynasty territories: North Vietnam, Southern Manchuria, East Turkestan, East Kazakhstan.

It became the richest nation in the world, it had strong cultural influence in East Asian, building many great architecture, the empire controlled 70% of the world GDP economy, and rich inventions flourishing. However it was never able to militarily expand that far outside of China.

Timurid empire territories: All Caucasus and Central Asia, parts of middle east, parts of South Asia.

It defeated the Ottomans of middle east, the Mamluk of Africa, the Golden horde of Europe, and Dehli sultanate of South Asia. Under Timurlane the empire was feared across whole Europe, Africa, Asia. Although the empire lasted for 150 years it was only under Timurlane that the empire became largest and strongest at it's extend, and it was only under Ulugh Beg that the empire became one of the richest Muslims centers and created one of finest observatories in the Islamic world however it was also military weak at that time.


Abbasid Caliphate territories: All middle east, North Africa, southern central Asia, Spain, Portugal, southern Italy (Sicily), parts of south Asia.

It is the largest Muslim empire in the world, it was during this time that muslims spread to all corners of the world, surpassing the number of Christianity. They defeated the Romans, Persians, Chinese in battles but were eventually completely destroyed by the Mongols

Ottoman empire territories: all of Balkan/Southern Europe, parts of East Asia, all Caucasus, most of North Africa, western middle east.

The Ottoman lasted for 600 years and caused panic and fear to all of Europe for an long time, they were literally unbeatable until the mighty British came, in almost every Turkish-British war, Turkish have lost and had their territories taken.


British Empire territories: North America, many parts of Africa, all of South Asia, parts of middle east, parts of South East Asia, part of the Pacific Australia and New Zealand, parts of Caribbean island, Guyana, Melanesia, Polynesia.

The world modern industrial empire, the empire of the British is the world largest and world most influential in history, British introduced inventions based on electronic and machines to the world. English is the number one language used in the world. However it's only bad side in my opinion it's that it was defeated by Japanese many times. British were defeated by Japanese in Burma, defeated by Japanese in Singapore, defeated by Japanese in Hong Kong, defeated by Japanese in Malaysia.


Japanese empire territories: Most of East Asia, all of Southeast Asia, most of pacific islands Melanesia, Polynesia, Papua New Guinea

It is the third largest modern empire. The Japanese empire was quickly able to expand to many territories in short time by defeating many of the world superpower empires. It was the only Asia empire that could stand against western expansion. it defeated the Russians in 1905, defeated British in Burma, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia. Defeated the Dutch in in Indonesia and East Timor, defeated Americans in in phillipines in 1942, took Vietnam away from the French. Took away several german colonies in pacific islands, and also took defeated Germans in Tsingtao. It's only bad side is it lasted for an short time, only 79 years, it was quickly defeated after they bomb pearl Harbour and declared against the alliance of American, British, Dutch, Australian. They were also stupid for fighting the Russians and Chinese on the same time, and all this in end resulted in their surrender after the two atomic bombing.

Russian empire territories: All of Siberia, all of eastern Europe, Caucaus, central Asia.

The Russian empire was the 2nd strongest after British, it is the 3 largest empire in history and 2nd largest in contiguous, it was them who also ended the Nazi's once and for all. However the Russians were knowing for acting barbaric during WW2, the Germans was able to wipe out almost 1/3 of Russia population.

Qing dynasty territories: Manchuria, China, East Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia. Strong influence and tribute state control of Korea, Vietnam, Nepal, Cambodia, Laos, Burma and Central Asia countries.

The Qing dynasty was the 5th largest modern empire it had 2 of the world most richest capital, it was the strongest empire in Asia until the western empires came. It was militarily inferior to western firearms and every defeat had caused them humiliation. As an result Qing dynasty was overthrewed by Han Chinese.


Nazi German empire territories: It included part of Europe, part of Africa, part of pacific lands.

The German fought against many world world superpower empires, it also created the mankind worst human disaster of weapon in history. However the Nazi was in the end exterminated, the Russian destroyed Germany and the Americans stole their atomic bomb.


How Did Ancient Empires Keep Order Over Large Territories?

I appreciate that this might be a little open ended but I'm keen to understand the means by which empires exerted control over territories they captured before the advent of mass communication and rapid transport.

They relied on local elites to collaborate with them. Usually an empire was happy as long as taxes or tribute were paid on time and occasionally auxiliary troops were sent to bolster the empire's army. For the most part it was only the threat of punitive expeditions that made the locals cooperate, but garrisons could also be left behind in certain strongholds to ensure a modicum of direct control.

To add to this, colonies were often used to better control and exert cultural influence over certain regions. Romans did this to fantastic effect. Romans did this magnificently, establishing colonies across its empire. Not only did this romanize the empire, but it also served as points of defense as well as areas of commerce (think Londinium or Constantinople).

The methodology really depended on the enpire and time period in question, but the premise was the same.

Your regional governers were expected to keep the peace, collect taxes, and levy troops when needed. When they failed at these tasks, they were removed. Below are just a few examples of strategies adopted.

In the Ummayad and Abassid Caliphates, there was an active police force that was independant from the military. In essence, it acted as a town garrison, equivelant to any police force today.

The Mongols kept order on the massive Silk Road by having patrol outposts every few miles where caravans would pass by to pay tolls and seek shelter if they ran into trouble. This system of caravan shelters was also a feature of Persia and the many different Muslim Caliphates and kingdoms from Morocco to the Levant.

Depending on how bad the unrest was, the army could be deployed. Southern Iraq saw a massive slave (Zanj) rebellion in the medieval age that decimated its sugar industry and saw a civilian massaccre by the rebels at the Siege of Basra.

You are correct about logistics and roads and how vital they were, every major empire and kingdom invested into its transportation and logistical network to ensure swift deployment, supply, and a flow of news from the countryside to the urban centers. This also extended to river and coastal port infrastructure, the Nile for example was literally a highway of goods, wealth, and people.


1. French Colonial Empire

France may be the only country in the world that had two separate empires with just over a decade between them. The first colonial empire started in 1534 and lasted until 1814. The second colonial empire, which proved to be the larger of the two, started in 1830 when France took Algiers.

France claimed dominance over 11.5 million square kilometers of land, or around 4.4 million square miles. The first empire had lost most of its territories after engaging in a number of wars with Britain. The French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the American Revolution all resulted in a loss of land for France.

After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain actually returned a number of territories to France, reestablishing their empire for the second time. France’s rule spread to places like Senegal, New Caledonia, Haiti, Vietnam and more.

Throughout the 1960s and 󈨊s France ceded control of many of the lands they had conquered back to their rightful owners, including Algeria and Vanuatu, which was the final country to regain its independence in 1980.


The Most Important Empires In History

Being an imperial power doesn’t impress people the way it used to. A century ago, countries strived to be a dominating world power and were willing to fight wars to either acquire an Empire, or hold on to the one they already had.

Nowadays, of course, in this “kinder, gentler” world, imperialism is considered politically incorrect. As a result—and because maintaining an empire is prohibitively expensive—they are basically no more, though a few remnants hang on (such as the Falkland Islands for the British and the Comoro Islands for France).

At one time, however, they were all the rage, with some of them extending around the globe and a few of them lasting for hundreds and, in a few cases, even thousands of years.

10. The Mayan Empire (ca. 2000 BCE-1540 CE)

How does the Mayan Empire make it onto the list alongside such well-known empires like the Roman, British, and Mongol Empires? Easy. It holds the record for the longest running empire—almost 3500 years! That’s more than twice as long as the Roman Empire, and 1500 years longer than the various Chinese dynasties combined! While very little is known about its first 3,000 years, its demise and brief interaction with the Spanish in the 16th century is the stuff of legends . Today, all we have left of the Mayans is their impressive pyramid-like structures scattered across the Yucatan peninsula, and a doomsday calendar that seems to have everybody up in arms nowadays.

9. The French Empire (1534-1962)

Eventually becoming the second-largest empire in history (second only to the British Empire), at its zenith the French Colonial Empire extended over 4.9 million square miles, and covered almost 1/10 of the Earth’s total land area.

Its influence made French one of the most widely-spoken languages in the world for a time, and brought French architecture, culture, and cuisine to the four corners of the globe.

Alas, like all the great European empires, its collapse came about incrementally over a long period of time, as it lost territories to other emerging nations—especially to the British—and it suffered through two World Wars, which drained it financially.

Though it continued to hold onto to some of its territories well into the 20th century (and still does to this day), by 1962, with the granting of independence to rebellious Algeria, the French Empire was basically no more, bringing a close to a long and cultured era in human history.

8. The Spanish Empire (1492-1976)

One of the first global empires, at its height it possessed territories and colonies in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania, making it one of the most important political and economic powers in the world for several hundred years. Its establishment in the 15th century also ushered in the modern global era, and five centuries of European dominance of global affairs before competition from other European powers—particularly the French and British—weakened Spain to the point that, by the end of the 19th century, it was but a shadow of its former greatness. The end didn’t finally come until the 1970s, however, when it granted its last colonies in Africa and South America their independence, spelling finito to 600 years of Spanish colonialism. Its chief contribution came in its discovery of the New World in 1492 and the spread of Christianity to the western world, both of which was to dramatically change the geo-political dynamics of the planet and lay the foundation for the modern western world.

7. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)

This was the last ruling dynasty of China before the country became a Republic, bringing an end to many hundreds of years of imperial rule. Preceded by the better-known Ming Dynasty, the Qing dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in what is today Manchuria in 1644. It grew quickly until, by the 18th century, it covered all of what is today’s modern China, Mongolia, and even parts of Siberia—an area of over 5.7 million square miles (and making it the 5th largest empire in history, according to land mass.) The Qing Dynasty was finally overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, however, when the Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated on behalf of the last emperor, Puyi, in February of 1912, bringing an end to a long line of Emperors stretching back over 1500 years. Not a bad run by any standards!

6. The Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)

I bet you’ve never heard of this one, but it proved to be one of the fastest growing—though shortest-lived—Empires in history. Organized in the aftermath of the death of the venerated prophet Muhammad, it was the mechanism by which Islam was spread across the Middle East and into North Africa, sweeping aside everything in its path. Actually, the Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad but, at its height, it would cover more than five million square miles, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen (modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age of Islam). Though it was eventually superseded by various other caliphates and empires (including the Ottoman Empire), it laid the foundation for what was to be a nearly unbroken string of Muslim control in the region, that continues to this day.

5. The Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BCE)

More commonly referred to as the Medo-Persian Empire, this Asian Empire was the largest one in ancient history which, at its height, extended from the Indus valley of modern day Pakistan to Libya, and into the Balkans. Forged by Cyrus the Great, it is best remembered as the chief foe of the Greek city states during the Greco-Persian Wars, for emancipating its slaves and releasing the Jews from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting the usage of official languages throughout its territories. It wasn’t very long, however, before it fell victim to Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, and was quickly defeated and absorbed into Alexander’s own vast, but short-lived, Empire.

4. The Ottoman Empire (1299-1922)

The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and longest lasting empires in history. During its height (under Suleiman the Magnificent) in the 16th century, it stretched from the southern borders of the Holy Roman Empire to the Persian Gulf, and from the Caspian Sea to modern day Algeria, giving it de facto control of much of southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained no fewer than 32 provinces, along with numerous vassal states, making it one of the truly great empires whose influence continues to be felt to this day.

3. The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)

Though short-lived as Empires go—it lasted a mere 162 years—while it was around, few were as frightening, or grew as quickly, as this one. Under the leadership of Ghengis Khan (1163-1227), it started small—basically just present-day Mongolia—but within seventy years it had grown into the largest contiguous land Empire in human history, eventually stretching from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan. At its height, it covered an area of 9 million square miles, and held sway over a population of 100 million.

2. The British Empire (1603 to 1997)

Though it lasted a mere 400 years, no empire was larger than the one the comparatively-small island nation of Great Britain was able to maintain until fairly recently. How big was it? At its zenith in 1922, the British Empire held sway over nearly half a billion people (a fifth of the world’s population at the time) and covered more than 13 million square miles (almost a quarter of the Earth’s total land area)! Not bad for a country slightly smaller than the state of Oregon. In fact, at one point the sun never set on the British Empire, not because God couldn’t trust an Englishman in the dark, but because of its global reach.

1. The Roman Empire (27 BCE to 1453)

This is a no-brainer, as absolutely no Empire is as well known and has been as thoroughly studied as is the one that owned the Mediterranean and much of Europe for almost 1,500 years.

Founded in 27 BCE, when the Roman senate granted Octavian the title of —thereby ending the old Roman Republic (which itself had already stood a good 500 years)—it ended nearly 1500 years later when the Ottoman Turks, under Mehmed II, sacked the last vestiges of the old Empire’s capitol, Constantinople, in 1453.

Of course, by that time it was a mere shadow of its former glory (and was no longer even ruled from Rome) but, at its zenith in 117 CE, it was the most powerful nation on the planet, bar none. While it wasn’t the largest, or even the longest-lasting Empire in history, its influence on western culture—especially in regards to architecture, language, literature, art, and science—cannot be underestimated.

In fact, it’s difficult to imagine how the world would look today if there hadn’t been a Roman Empire those many centuries ago.


The Hattians were a civilization which inhabited the area of present-day Anatolia, Turkey from the 26th century to around the 18th century B.C. Believed to be the earliest urban settlers of the area, their existence can be traced to 24th-century Akkadian cuneiform tablets. Most archaeologists believe that they were indigenous to the area preceding the more famous Hittite civilization, which arrived in the 23rd century B.C. The two cultures slowly merged together, with the Hittites adopting a variety of Hatti religious beliefs and practices. Many of the largest Hittite settlements, such as Alaca Hoyuk and Hattusa, are believed to have originally been Hattian.

While they had their own spoken language, no evidence of a written form of the Hatti language has ever been found. It&rsquos likely that they were multilingual, perhaps to facilitate trade with their Assyrian partners. In fact, most of what we know about the Hattians comes from the widespread adoption of their culture by the Hittites. Their population probably existed as a majority for decades&mdashif not centuries&mdashwhile they were under the aristocratic rule of the Hittites, before they eventually faded away into obscurity.


10 Aksum

The kingdom Aksum (or Axum) has been the subject of countless legends. Whether as the home of the mythical Prester John, the lost kingdom of the Queen of Sheba, or the final resting place of the Ark of the Covenant, Aksum has long been at the forefront of Western imaginations.

The Ethiopian kingdom of reality, not myth, was an international trading power. Thanks to access to both the Nile and Red Sea trading routes, Aksumite commerce thrived, and by the beginning of the common era, most Ethiopian peoples were under Aksumite rule. Aksum&rsquos power and prosperity allowed it to expand into Arabia. In the third century A.D., a Persian philosopher wrote that Aksum was one of the world&rsquos four greatest kingdoms, alongside Rome, China, and Persia.

Aksum adopted Christianity not long after the Roman Empire did and continued to thrive through the early Middle Ages. If not for the rise and expansion of Islam, Aksum might have continued to dominate East Africa. After the Arab conquest of the Red Sea coastline, Aksum lost its primary trade advantage over its neighbors. Of course, Aksum had only itself to blame. Just a few decades earlier, an Aksumite king had given asylum to early followers of Muhammad, thus ensuring the expansion of the religion which was to unmake the Aksumite empire.


Watch the video: ДИМАШ ОПЕРА 2. История выступления и анализ успеха. Dimash Opera 2 (November 2021).